The usage of hand carts to transfer loads rather of transferring them conserves workers a lot of effort. The decreases the hazard of overexertion injury in tasks that include manual materials handling.

However, pushing, pulling, and maneuvering hand carts still involve some common hazards (overexertion). The most typical injuries that result from hand cart operations are:

fingers and hands being recorded in, on, or between the cart and also other objects,toes, feet and also lower legs being bumped or crushed through the cart, slips, trips, and also falls, and stress, overload injuries predominantly for the reduced back, shoulder, and arm muscles and also joints.

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Also see the OSH answers on Pushing and also Pulling – basic for much more information.


What characteristics influence how much weight have the right to be safely transported on a hand cart?


Overall, the is the an unified weight that the cart and also load that must be considered. However, the is difficult to outline how much weight deserve to be transported making use of a hand cart. Numerous factors impact how much pressure is needed to relocate a offered weight. The main factors are:

1. Workplace Characteristics:

a. Aisle width - aisles should be wide enough because that the operator"s body to safely was standing behind the dare at every times and also apply the force important to move it. Load weight might need come be lessened in tight aisles or corners.

b. Ramps - an ext force is compelled to relocate the exact same weight up ramps, as well as to slow down a completely loaded dare while moving down ramps.

c. Floor qualities - damaged, uneven, or etched floors create hazards in the they can catch wheels or castors in them. Floors that are dusty, dirty, oily, or wet will minimize the capability of the handler to preserve traction. Without friction, the worker will have to exert too much force to relocate the load, and also may slip and trip.

2. Cart Characteristics:

a. Wheel/castor dimension and number of wheels or castors

b. Manage orientation/height, manage diameter

c. As whole cart size

d. Weight of the cart

e. Stability of dare

3. Task:

a. The pressure needed because that the initial activity – recommendations include a pushing or pulling pressure of no much more than 320 N for males, and 220 N for females (N = Newtons, whereby 10 newtons is approximately 1 kg).

b. The pressure needed to sustain motion - recommendations incorporate a advertise or pulling pressure of no much more than 230 N for males, and 130 N because that females (N = Newtons, wherein 10 newtons is roughly 1 kg).

c. The distance and also duration the fill is relocated (e.g., exactly how far and also how long).

d. Direction and also nature of movement.

4. Operator knowledge and also training: maintain in exactly how to relocate the cart safely have the right to lower some forces on the body.

5. Human Factors:

a. Elevation

b. Weight

c. Age

d. Strength

e. Gender

f. Posture

g. Physiological capacity


How much weight can be safe transported ~ above different varieties of hand carts?


Good design of the workplace and also the choice of a hand cart an ideal for the task can reduce the danger of injury. Points to think about when selecting carts include:

expected fill (weight, size, shape),frequency that use, ranges to cover, work area attributes (aisle width, form of flooring), and also form of wheels or casters.

There room currently few numerical requirements on acceptable loads or forces required while operation hand carts. Referrals presented in Table 1 are adopted from guidelines developed by the Ergonomics team of Eastman Kodak Co. Who compiled data from assorted studies.

General recommendations for an option are:

the pack on three-, and also four- wheel hand carts must not exceed 200 Kg (approximately 450 lbs),the load on hand pallet carts deserve to be increase to roughly 700 Kg (1500 lbs),manual carts need to not be used much more than 200 times a occupational day,the fill should not be transported much more than 30-35 meter (about 100 feet) every "shipment".

Where there is a need to move heavier lots over longer distances, utilizing powered trucks or a it is provided conveyor system should be considered. Likewise note that pushing and pulling under non-ideal problems lowers the for sure pushing and pulling limit.

Table 1Recommended limits in the choice of Hand and also Powered Trucks and CartsType of van or CartMaximum pack Maximum carry DistanceMaximum Frequency devices (per 8 hr - shift)Minimum Aisle WidthType of transfer to and also from Truck+
kglbmftmft
2-wheeled hand cart11425016502001.03Ma, P
3-wheeled hand cart22750016502001.03Ma, P
4-wheeled hand cart227500331002001.34Ma, P
Hand pallet truck6821500331002001.34Me, UL
Electric pallet truck22735000822504001.34Me, UL
Electric hand-jack background truck22735000331004001.34Me, UL
Power short lift truck2273500032810004002.06Me, P, UL
Electric handstacking truck6821500822504001.34++Me, UL
Power fork truck227350001645004002.06++Me, UL

+ Ma = Manual; Me = Mechanical; ns = Parts; UL = Unit pack

++ these trucks have actually tiering capability. In order to use it, ceiling need to be more than 4 m (12 ft) high.

Adapted from: Ergonomic style for people at Work: Vol. 2, by Eastman Kodak Company. Valve Nostrand Reinhold, 1986, and also Kodak’s Ergonomic architecture for world at Work 2nd edition through Somadeepti, et al. 2004.


Eliminate pushing and also pulling of tons where possible. For example, take into consideration installing conveyor systems, even for brief distances.

Modifying force borders for pushing, pulling or maneuvering for any kind of given work case is crucial not just for the security of the operator but likewise for other workers within the work-related area.

Simple actions can be taken to ensure the risks associated with making use of hand carts room minimized:

1. Rectal characteristics:

a. Aisle Conditions:

i. Keep aisles clear of clutter.

ii. Aisles need to be vast enough to permit the worker to was standing behind the cart and push.

iii. Corners have to accommodate the turning radius the the relocating cart there is no stopping and also starting.

b. Ramps:

i. Usage winches for huge ramps.

ii. Usage power assists (a battery powered pushing device).

iii. If multiple ramps are present, encompass a hand or foot brake top top the dare to assist the operator regulate heavy loads.

iv. If many ramps room present, think about using powered carts.

c. Floor Conditions:

i. Store floors in great repair.

ii. For sure floors room clean, complimentary of debris, dirt, dust, various liquids, or spills.

iii. If floors are very uneven, think about fixing the floors or using powered carts.

2. Cart Characteristics:

a. Wheels/Castors:

i. Usage a larger diameter wheel. Boosting the diameter that the wheels generally decreases force requirements.

ii. A more tough caster/tire generally decreases pressure requirements.

iii. A broader tread normally increases pressure requirements.

Note: Pneumatic wheels need to not be provided for heavy loads together they may compress and also substantially increase the force requirements.

b. Handles

i. Use swivel castors ~ above the same finish of the cart as the take care of (Figure 1).


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Figure 1

ii. Handle on pallet trucks must be long enough to avoid worker"s feet from gift struck by human body of pallet van (Figure 2).


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Figure 2

iii. Solved horizontal handles should be at a height between 91 cm and 112 cm above the floor (Figure 3).


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Figure 3

iv. Vertical handles enable a worker to ar hands at comfortable positions for their height (usually used for tall or small carts) (Figure 4).


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Figure 4

v. For handles fixed to the cart"s surface, the handles should not be more than 46 cm apart. Wider separations boost the load on smaller shoulder muscles.


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Figure 5

vi. Handles must be thick enough to grip easily - 2.5 centimeter to 3.8 cm.

vii. Addressed handles placed in the horizontal direction should have a minimum size of 20 cm.

c. Cart size

i. Huge carts (longer 보다 1.3 m and/or wider than 1 m) are challenging to maneuver and should no be used in workplaces v narrow aisles.

3. Task:

a. Risk components include high pace of work, heavy loads, high exertion, repeat of movements, high pressure used, long distances, poor flooring, bad path for the dare to travel, and also poor footing (grip the footwear to the floor). Design the occupational flow and work speed to minimization these factors.

4. Operator Training/Experience:

a. Operators must be trained on suitable body placing for the form of cart and also load gift handled.

b. Operators need to receive cultivate on how to maneuver heavy loads.

c. Operators need to walk at an suitable cart speed - recommended speed should complement a typical walking pace (3-4 km/h).

d. Operators need to opt to push rather 보다 pull carts where possible. Tasks should it is in designed so the the operator can push the load.

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5. Human Factors:

a. Architecture the occupational pace and work circulation to suit as countless individuals as possible. Enable operators some manage over the occupational they do.

b. Choose equipment that will certainly suit or be changed to as plenty of individuals together possible.

c. Use ideal footwear for the flooring. Soles that slip will increase the initiative needed to move the cart.