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You are watching: Which of these conditions would be treated with phakic iols

StatPearls . Sweetheart Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Continuing education and learning Activity

The phakic intraocular lens (IOLs) is a technology that expands the variety of refractive surgery to cover higher degrees of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism that were formerly not possible to treat. It offers an reliable solution come high refractive errors in candidates who room not suited for corneal refractive treatments. This activity reviews the evaluation and management the patients through high myopia experience treatment with phakic IOLs and also highlights the duty of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients through this condition.

Objectives:
Describe the public health of myopia and also the development of phakic IOLs.
Summarize the management considerations because that patients through high myopia using phakic IOLs.
Review the common complications of phakic IOLs provided in high myopia.
Summarize the importance of collaboration and also communication amongst the interprofessional team to improve outcomes because that patients affected by high myopia v phakic IOLs.
Access complimentary multiple an option questions top top this topic.


Introduction

Myopia is a condition of nearsightedness in which parallel rays indigenous infinity space focused prior to they with the retina v the house at rest. Various refractive surgical actions are offered to law myopia specific laser in situ keratomileuses (LASIK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) or Epi-LASEK, intracorneal ring segments (ICRS or INTACS), clear lens exploit (CLE) or phakic intraocular lens/IOL (PIOL) implantation.

Excimer laser measures are reliable for the treatment of low and moderate myopia. Intracorneal ring segments may be provided to treat low myopia, but their results are very unpredictable. Very ametropic eyes room not perfect candidates for laser actions or ICRS and require options such as phakic IOL implantation. This gives for a much better quality that vision not easily accessible with other techniques. The conservation of accommodation and minimal manipulation of the crystalline lens are other advantages.<1>

History of Phakic IOLs

In 1953, Benedetto Strampelli implanted one anterior chamber IOL (ACIOL) because that the correction of significant myopia in phakic eyes. This did no come into practice due to endothelial complications, iritis, pupillary block, and also glaucoma. Joaquin Barraquer presented an IOL v elastic loops better adaptable come the anterior chamber because that myopic phakic eyes. These IOLs also caused similar complications and also thus did no become very popular.<2>

Over time phakic AC-IOLs increasingly improved. Crucial contributions in the development of phakic IOL’s include the donation by:

Fechner and Worst – iris fixed IOLs <3>

Baikoff – angle supported AC-IOLs <4> 

Fyodorov - posterior room IOLs (PC-IOLs) through ciliary groove fixation <5>


Etiology

The normal process of emmetropization starts v hyperopia in the infancy of about +2 D. During the first two years of life, and also there is a fast decrease in this hyperopia to approximately +1 D. The transition towards emmetropia continues at a slower price after three years until about six years of age.<6>

This is regarded the price of growth of the eyeball. In myopic individuals, the axial length boosts at a much quicker rate. Axial myopia is an increase in axial length and thinning the the sclera the is because of increased collagen degradation and also reduced collagen synthesis.<7> Myopia may be categorized together mild myopia (0 D come −1.5 D), moderate myopia (−1.5 D come −6.0 D), and high myopia (−6.0 D or more).<8> Pathological myopia is usually seen v -8 D or an ext and is associated with usual retinal and also macular degeneration.<8>

Various environmental determinants play a function in the development of myopia, although no clear association has been established yet. Numerous day-to-day activities, together as diminished outdoor time and increased near work activities, including increased usage of electronic devices, pat a contributory role in the breakthrough of myopia.<9> Other proposed causes include genetic predisposition, low day-to-day light exposure, and diet.<10>


Epidemiology

There is a large variation in the prevalence of myopia in different regions and also ethnic groups.<11> The pervasiveness of myopia deserve to be approximated to be around 70% to 90% in Asia, around 30% come 40% in Europe and America, and 10% come 20% in Africa.<12> 

High myopia contributes approximately 10 to 20% that the cases in young adults.<13> The significant risk components identified space intensive education and learning and restricted outdoor time.<13> Myopia development in asian children is much faster than in western children.<14> No sex predilection has actually been reported in the pervasiveness of myopia.  

The morbidity caused as result of vision handicap from uncorrected myopia in addition to irreversible intuitive loss from myopia-related complications warrants accurate global estimates the the situation and also temporal trends an important for planning management.<9> 

The percentage of moderate and also high myopes opting because that refractive surgical procedure is about ten times and also sixteen times an ext than low myopes, respectively.<15>


History and Physical

Preoperative background for implantation of a phakic IOL should start with developing realistic expectations because that the procedure. A complete background of the refractive stability, comfort, and satisfaction v glasses or call lenses, the age of first spectacle correction, any history of amblyopia or strabismus have to be taken. Frequent readjust in the prescription that glasses requirements to be evaluate in detail for problems like keratoconus or pellucid marginal degeneration.

Patient’s Age: A young aged encouraged patient that has accomplished refractive stability and also has much less than 0.5 D the refractive readjust in 1 year is perfect candidate for phakic IOL.<16> The concept of presbyopia needs to be plainly explained while counseling a patient for any type of kind the refractive surgery.<17>

Pupil Size: A scotopic pupil size bigger than the optical zone of the implant would bring about glare and also halos, which may be severely debilitating in the postoperative period and might even need explantation that the IOL.<18>

A complete corneal testimonial with endothelial cabinet count and topography is important prior to planning a phakic IOL implantation.

A substantially deep anterior chamber is mandatory for a phakic IOL. Many phakic IOLs require an anterior room depth the at least 3 mm.<19>

Relative Contraindications for Phakic IOLs Include:<16>


Cataract
Chronic uveitis
Low endothelial cabinet count

Indications for FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) authorized Phakic IOLs:<20> 

Visian ICL: convey of myopia indigenous -3.0 to -15.0 D and reduction that myopia indigenous -15.0 to -20.0 D with less than 2.5 D of astigmatism at the spectacle plane in patients aged 21 to 45 years through an anterior room depth of more than 3.0 mm and also refractive stability within 0.5 D because that one year prior to implantation.

Artisan/ Verisyse IOL: correction of myopia from -5.0 to -20.0 D with much less than 2.5 D the astigmatism at the spectacle airplane in patients aged much more than 21 years with an anterior room depth of much more than 3.2 mm and refractive stability within 0.5 D for 6 months before implantation. 

Contraindications for FDA authorized Phakic IOLs:<20>

Visian ICL: Anterior room angle less than grade 2 established by gonioscopy, pregnant or parenting females, endothelial thickness in the range 1900 to 3875 cells/mm^2 relying on age.

Artisan/Verisyse IOL: any angle abnormality, iris abnormalities such as peaked pupil or elevated iris margin, pregnant or education females, endothelial thickness in the variety 2000 to 3550 cells/mm^2 depending on age.


Evaluation

The following components need come be considered in the preoperative evaluation:

Refraction: Both manifest and also cycloplegic refraction must be performed. The best-corrected visual acuity in the undilated and cycloplegic state (after performing cycloplegia v homatropine or tropicamide) have to be recorded.

Anterior chamber depth (ACD): most phakic IOLs call for ACD the at the very least 3 mm.

Anterior room angle and also gonioscopy: Gonioscopy should be performed preoperatively to identify narrow or abnormal angles, which might lead to further postoperative narrowing and secondary glaucoma ~ phakic IOL implantation. The accepted variety of iridocorneal angle aperture because that phakic IOL implantation is an ext than or same to 30 degrees, which corresponds to Shaffer great 3 and also 4 or Scheie class 0 and also 1.<21>

Corneal topography need to be performed together is done in all refractive workups.

Specular microscopy: including specular microscope measurement of endothelial cell count, cell form (polymorphism), and also variation in cell dimension (polymegathism). Phakic IOL implantation leader to endothelial cabinet loss in the postoperative period, much more so because that the anterior chamber IOLs (ACIOLs) and also so a healthy preoperative endothelium v a cell counting of at the very least 2300 every millimeter square need to be ensured.<16><22>

Sulcus come sulcus (STS) measurements: This is crucial for sizing that the phakic IOL and measurement of lens vault (distance in between the posterior surface ar of the IOL and the anterior lens capsule) in situation of a phakic posterior room IOL (PCIOL). An almost right calculation of the dimension of the IOL depending on the vault is made making use of the white come white (WTW) measure by adding 0.5 mm come the measured value in myopes and also subtracting 0.5 mm in hyperopes. WTW might be measured making use of calipers, scanning slot topography, digital caliper, Scheimpflug-based devices, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), or digital ultrasounds.<23><24><25> As the measurement values might vary depending upon the technique used, that is wise to use an average of the values. It has actually been said that directly measuring the STS diameter using ultrasound biomicroscopy or an extremely high frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound might be a more reliable method for the size estimation the phakic IOLs.<26><27>

Ideal vault dimension for phakic posterior room IOLs is 1 plus or minus 0.5 the the corneal thickness, which is in the selection of 250 come 750 microns.<28>

IOL strength calculation: Biometry, keratometry, anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, preoperative refraction have to be accurately measured, and the appropriate formula applied. Van der Hejde nomogram might be provided for IOL power calculation.<29>

Peripheral retinal examination and also laser of retinal division are crucial to stop complications that retinal detachments in the postoperative period, specifically as pupil dilation remains limited with anterior room IOLs.


Treatment / Management

Treatment that high myopia have the right to be done utilizing spectacles, call lenses, keratorefractive procedures, CLE, and phakic IOLs Spectacles may induce aberrations in cases of high myopia, and also the patient may thus be intolerant to your use. Call lens use is cumbersome, and also they need to be readjusted and cleaned periodically, making lock unsuitable for many candidates. Keratorefractive procedures transform the common asphericity and shape that the cornea and also may result in various complications in the postoperative period, such together haze (PRK) or flap connected complications and ectasia (LASIK). Moreover, the patient requirements to fit right into the corneal topography and also thickness criteria to have the ability to undergo this procedures. CLE leader to a ns of accommodation and thus is unsuitable for young age patients.<30><31> Also, CLE in high myopia may be linked with an boosted risk the retinal detachment.<32>

Preoperative laser iridotomy or intraoperative operation iridectomy needs to be performed to protect against pupillary block in the postoperative period for the anterior chamber IOLs, and also the posterior chamber PRL and Visian ICL 4 models.<33>


Prognosis

Success with the lens depends largely on precise preoperative evaluation, which determines the vaulting in instance of a PCIOL and sizing in case of an ACIOL.<34> Newer models the IOLs have actually incorporated attributes to minimize call with iris and conform better to the geometry the the eye.<35>

Refractive outcomes space good, and with optimum calculations, these IOLs can efficiently correct myopia of approximately 20 dioptres (D) with great results. 

Studies have shown PIOLs come have great postoperative intuitive outcomes such as a mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of far better than 20/40 in the bulk of patients.<36><37>


Complications

Endothelial cell loss: it is much more common through ACIOLs. This may lead to corneal decompensation, and in too much cases, explantation the the IOL might be forced when the endothelial counting drops below 2000 cells per millimeter square. A 1% mean annual reduction in endothelial cabinet count has been seen in angle addressed IOLs once the distance in between the corneal endothelium and also the sheet of the IOL is 1.43 mm.<38> This rises to 1.7% as soon as the distance reduces come 1.2 mm and is minimal once the distance is 1.66 mm.<38>

In a study on the implantation the anterior chamber phakic IOLs, the NuVita IOL reported 2.35% endothelial cell loss in ~ one year and also was hence withdrawn.<39> median endothelial cell loss at one year, as viewed in various studies on other models, was 3.86% in ZSAL-4,<40> 1.83% in iris fixated IOL"s,<41> 2% in IPCL<42>, 0.9% in ICL.<43>

In a 12 year retrospective research on 144 eyes implanted through ICL, Moya et al. Reported 6.46% operation induced endothelial cabinet loss during the an initial year, beyond which an mean yearly decrease rate of 1.20% was noted.<44>

IOL rotation happens as result of inappropriate sizing. May cause induced astigmatism in instances of toric IOLs.

Pigment dispersion may result in lens deposits. Usually, no treatment is required.

Chronic inflammation and also uveitis are much more common with ACIOLs.

Pupil distortion is seen in ACIOLs. This may lead to intractable glare and maybe cosmetically unacceptable.

Pupillary block and glaucoma: Pupillary block might occur due to inappropriate vaulting in the case of PCIOLs. It may resolve ~ pupil dilation and also use of pressure-lowering agents, but the definitive therapy is the production or enhancement of a previously produced peripheral iridotomy. Kept viscoelastic material may additionally cause increased intraocular push (IOP). Angle addressed IOLs may block the angles and lead to a increase in IOP.

Glare and halos are seen as soon as the scotopic pupil size is higher than the optic that the IOL. Miotic agents may be provided for resolution.

Cataract development occurs in short PIOL vault or undersized PCIOL. This is mainly in the kind of anterior subcapsular opacities that develop due come the push of the IOL ~ above the crystalline lens. Lens material also plays a role. Silicone in PRL might predispose more to cataract formation than Collamer of ICL.<45><46><47> 

In a 5-year retreat study, Brar et al. Report that, in a full of 957 eyes, far-reaching anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC) request explantation occurred in 4 eyes (0.4%).<48> In an eight-year follow up of 41 eyes implanted through V4 ICL through Igarashi et al., asymptomatic ASC was reported in four eyes (9.8%).<49> Sanders et al., in their study on 106 eyes with -12.00 D or much more of preoperative myopia reported clinically significant cataracts in 7 eyes (6.6%), whereas no cataract developed in 420 eyes with preoperative myopia less than -12.00 D. They for this reason concluded the a greater degree that baseline myopia more frequently predisposes to cataract formation.<50>

As most cases are high myopes, there are possibilities of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD) more than emmetropic eyes, in the variety of 0.7% to 3.2%.<51> However, such eyes with high myopia are already predisposed come retinal detachment, and also the association of PIOL v RRD needs more evaluation.


Deterrence and Patient Education

Patients need to be aptly counseled preoperatively with finish knowledge of all easily accessible options and realistic expectations set for postoperative outcomes in addition to necessary details on the possible complications.


Pearls and also Other Issues

Any residual refractive error may be corrected making use of bioptics, i m sorry is the mix of an intraocular procedure v a keratorefractive procedure. Pseudophakic ametropia may additionally be corrected v the aid of phakic IOLs.<52>


Enhancing health care Team Outcomes

A high myopia-patient may frequently present come a primary medical care provider, for this reason the patient need to be counseled appropriately around the miscellaneous treatment options available. The patient have to be evaluated completely by one optometrist and also efficiently operated up by one ophthalmic technician as the success the the procedure greatly depends ~ above the preoperative measurements.

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Proper consideration needs to be given to any type of medical problem the patient might be having and also should obtain treatment for the same. The nurses are also an essential members the the interprofessional group as they screen the patient"s an essential signs and assist through the education and learning of the patient and family and compliance on monitor up. Pharmacists deserve to ensure proper postoperative dosing the medication. This collaborative, interprofessional strategy to care can for sure optimal patient outcomes.