Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?a) A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.b) Some reactants will be converted to products.c) The reactions are nonspontaneous.d) The products have more total energy than the reactants.e) The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.
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A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is correctly described asa) exothermic.b) spontaneous.c) endothermic.d) endergonic.e) enthalpic.
What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?a) entropicb) anabolismc) hydrolysisd) dehydration synthesise) dehydration decomposition
Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?a) Its terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that when hydrolyzed releases free energy.b) Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions.c) Its terminal phosphate bond has higher energy than the other two.d) It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.e) Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions, it provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions, its terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that when hydrolyzed releases free energy, and its terminal phosphate bond has higher energy than the other two.
When ATP releases some energy, it also releases inorganic phosphate. What purpose does this serve (if any) in the cell?a) It can be added to water and excreted as a liquid.b) It can be added to other molecules in order to activate them.c) It can only be used to regenerate more ATP.d) It can enter the nucleus to affect gene expression.e) It is released as an excretory waste.
Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions?a) α -phosphate (the phosphate closest to ribose)b) β-phosphate (the middle phosphate)c) γ-phosphate (the terminal phosphate)d) adenine groupe) ribose sugar
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules?a) nucleic acidsb) proteinsc) lipidsd) carbohydratesd) minerals
Enzymes work by _____.a) increasing the potential energy difference between reactant and productb) reducing EAc) adding energy to a reactiond) adding a phosphate group to a reactante) decreasing the potential energy difference between reactant and product
An enzyme _____.a) is a source of energy for endergonic reactionsb) increases the EA of a reactionc) is an organic catalystd) is a inorganic catalyste) can bind to nearly any molecule
How can one increase the rate of a chemical reaction?a) Decrease the concentration of the reactants.b) Cool the reactants.c) Add a catalyst.d) Increase the entropy of the reactants.e) Increase the activation energy needed.
Sucrose is a disaccharide, composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. The hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase results ina) breaking the bond between glucose and fructose and forming new bonds from the atoms of water.b) the release of water from sucrose as the bond between glucose and fructose is broken.c) production of water from the sugar as bonds are broken between the glucose monomers.d) bringing glucose and fructose together to form sucrose.e) utilization of water as a covalent bond is formed between glucose and fructose to form sucrase.
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Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true?a) Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction.b) Enzymes change the direction of chemical reactions.c) Enzymes decrease the free energy change of a reaction.d) Enzymes prevent changes in substrate concentrations.e) Enzymes are permanently altered by the reactions they catalyze.
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as __________ is to __________.a) work; energyb) exergonic; endergonicc) exergonic; spontaneousd) entropy; enthalpye) free energy; entropy