If DNA is a book, then how is that read? Learn an ext about the DNA warrior process, where DNA is converted to RNA, a more portable collection of instructions for the cell.


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The genetic code is generally referred to together a "blueprint" due to the fact that it includes the indict a cell requires in order to sustain itself. Us now understand that there is much more to these instructions than just the succession of letters in the nucleotide code, however. Because that example, huge amounts that evidence show that this password is the basis for the manufacturing of various molecules, including RNA and also protein. Research study has likewise shown the the instructions stored within DNA room "read" in two steps: transcription and translation. In transcription, a part of the double-stranded DNA template provides rise come a single-stranded RNA molecule. In some cases, the RNA molecule itself is a "finished product" that serves part important function within the cell. Often, however, warrior of an RNA molecule is followed by a translation step, which ultimately results in the production of a protein molecule.
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Figure 1
The process of transcription can be visualized by electron microscopy (Figure 1); in fact, it was very first observed using this an approach in 1970. In these early on electron micrographs, the DNA molecules appear as "trunks," with many RNA "branches" prolonging out native them. When DNAse and also RNAse (enzymes that degrade DNA and RNA, respectively) were included to the molecules, the applications of DNAse eliminated the stems structures, when the use of RNAse wiped out the branches.

DNA is double-stranded, however only one strand serves together a template for transcription at any kind of given time. This theme strand is dubbed the noncoding strand. The nontemplate strand is referred to as the coding strand due to the fact that its sequence will be the same as that of the new RNA molecule. In most organisms, the strand the DNA that serves as the design template for one gene may be the nontemplate strand for various other genes in ~ the very same chromosome.




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The process of transcription begins when an enzyme called RNA polymerase (RNA pol) attaches come the template DNA strand and begins to catalyze manufacturing of safety RNA. Polymerases are huge enzymes created of around a dozen subunits, and also when active on DNA, lock are additionally typically complexed with other factors. In countless cases, these components signal which gene is to it is in transcribed. Three different species of RNA polymerase exist in eukaryotic bio cells, whereas bacteria have only one. In eukaryotes, RNA pol ns transcribes the genes that encode many of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and RNA pol III transcribes the genes for one little rRNA, add to the transfer RNAs the play a key role in the translation process, and also other tiny regulatory RNA molecules. Thus, that is RNA pol II that transcribes the messenger RNAs, which serve as the templates for production of protein molecules.