discover a faster, less complicated path to posting in a high-quality journal. bromheads.tv ONE guarantees fair, rigorous peer review, large scope, and broad readership – a perfect fit for your study every time.

Learn an ext Submit now


Click v the bromheads.tv taxonomy to find write-ups in your field.

You are watching: What level of intensity is playing a singles tennis match

For more information about bromheads.tv subject Areas, click here.


Tennis play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive football player Ernest Baiget, Jaime Fernández-Fernández, Xavier Iglesias, Ferran A. Rodríguez
*

*

*

*

*

The aims of this examine were (i) to describe the loved one intensity the simulated tennis play based on the accumulation time spent in 3 metabolic soot zones, and also (ii) to recognize the relationships between this pat intensity distribution and also the aerobic fitness of a team of competitive players. 20 male players of progressed to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court certain endurance tennis test to fatigue to recognize maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and also the very first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters to be monitored utilizing a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later on the participants played a simulated tennis set against an enemy of similar level. Intensity area (1: low, 2: moderate, and also 3: high) were delimited through the separation, personal, instance VO2 values equivalent to VT1 and also VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and also heart rate. When expressed family member to VO2max, percent of play time in ar 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p 1, VT2 and also VO2max, and the percent of play time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68–0.75), and also low come high train station correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time invested in ar 2 and also 3 (r = -0.49–0.75). Players with far better aerobic fitness play at fairly lower intensities. We conclude that players spent much more than 75% of the time in your low-intensity zone, with less than 25% the the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity the players deserve to sustain transparent the game.


Citation: Baiget E, Fernández-Fernández J, Iglesias X, Rodríguez FA (2015) Tennis play Intensity Distribution and also Relation through Aerobic Fitness in vain Players. Bromheads.tv ONE 10(6): e0131304. Https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131304

Editor: Maria Francesca Piacentini, university of Rome, ITALY

Received: January 8, 2015; Accepted: June 1, 2015; Published: June 22, 2015

Data Availability: All relevant data room within the paper.

Funding: This work was supported by study grants from Institut Nacional d"Educació Física de Barcelona (Projectes d"investigació i recerca preferencial) http://www.inefc.cat/inefc/AppPHP/index.php?id_pagina=1. EB was supported by Institut Nacional d"Educació Física de Catalunya. The funders had actually no role in research design, data collection and also analysis, decision to publish, or ready of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The writer have asserted that no completing interests exist.


Introduction

Tennis has evolved from a sports in which skill was the primary prerequisite for successful performance into a sports that additionally requires facility interaction of number of physical materials (i.e., strength and also agility) and metabolic capacities (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) <1,2>. Nowadays, numerous previous studies have actually reported the external and internal load demands of tennis beat <39>. Regarding to the external load, tennis match play is characterized by intermittent whole body efforts, alternate short (2–10 s) bouts that high-intensity exercise and short (10–20 s) recovery bouts interrupted by numerous resting durations of longer duration (60–90 s) <1,6>. The common duration of a tennis match is normally 1.5–2 hours yet it deserve to last even over 4 hours, and the mean rally duration lasts 5–10 s, through a 20 s break, and 60 to 120 s break during the changeovers <1,5,6,10>. Matches comprise around 300–500 high intensity initiatives with stroke rates ranging in between 2.5–4.7 shots/rally, dependence on gender and also surface <1>.

From a physiological suggest of view, throughout competitive matches, mean heart rate (HR) worths ranges between 60–80% of maximum HR (HRmax), through long and intense rallies eliciting worths over 95% of HRmax <11>, and also the oxygen uptake (

*
O2) values averaged 50–60% of maximal worths (
*
O2max) <1,5>. Mean blood lactate concentration ranges from 1.7 to 3.8 mmol·l-1, yet during long and intense rallies lactate values can go approximately 8.6 mmol·l-1 <1,5,11>. The rate of viewed exertion (RPE) has been reported as ranging from 5–7 arbitrary devices (CR-10) and also 10–16 (Borg 20-point) <7,12,13>.

Although the effective performance in tennis can not be defined by a predominating physics attribute, together it requires a complex interaction of physical determinants <1,14>, it has been argued that aerobic fitness (i.e.,

*
O2max) is critical component of tennis performance.
*
O2max worths >50 ml·kg-1·min-1 space generally considered necessary for contending at a high level <5,6,15,16>. It seems that a good aerobic fitness level enables the player not just to repeatedly generate exbromheads.tvive actions, such together strokes and also on-court movements, but additionally ensures fast recovery in between rallies, especially during long matches <1618>.

As formerly described, the common approach for the decision of the intensity throughout tennis complement play has actually been utilizing maximal values and also percentages of

*
O2max and also HRmax <3,4,10,12,19>. However, these loved one values might correspond to a wide variety of individual exercise intensities <20>. For instance, at the same portion of
*
O2max or HRmax some individuals may be above and others below their metabolic (“anaerobic”) threshold—no matter they are identified using ventilatory alters or blood lactate <21>. Therefore, the usage of given percentage values of
*
O2max or HRmax has actually been wondered about when supplied to identify exercise intensities because that training and research functions <20,22>. To describe the level of physical exertion under compete conditions, the department of 3 intensity phases (or zones) follow to recommendation values derived during physiological testing has been supplied in different consistent sports <2325>. However, details related to the description of this intensity area in intermittent sporting activities is scarce <26>, and no previous study analysed this topic in tennis.

Therefore, the aims of the study were (i) to describe the family member intensity of simulated tennis play based on the accumulation time invested in 3 intensity zones delimited by ventilatory thresholds (VTs zones) and HR demarcation clues (HR zones) established via an on-court tennis particular incremental test, and (ii) to identify the relationships between this pat intensity distribution and also the aerobic fitness of a team of high-level vain players. Our functioning hypothesis was the the largest part of play time will certainly be spent listed below the zone identified by the very first ventilatory threshold, and also only a small part will it is in played above the second ventilatory threshold. We also hypothesized the an association will exist in between the time spent in VTs and HR strongness zones and the aerobic fitness of tennis football player (i.e.,

*
O2max and ventilatory thresholds), so the players with far better aerobic fitness would certainly play at reasonably lower intensities.


Subjects

20 masculine competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 18.0 ± 1.2 years; height: 179.0 ± 8.4 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 9.5 kg; 75% appropriate handed) v an international Tennis Number (ITN) varying from 1 (elite) to 3 (advanced) (ITN 1 = 5 players; ITN 2 = 9 players; ITN 3 = 6 players), volunteered to get involved in the study. The typical training elevator of the players was 6.6 ± 2.0 years and also the maintain regimen to be 5 d·week-1 v a maintain volume of 23 ± 1.4 h·week-1. Players were focusing 3.2 ± 0.3 h·day-1 on tennis-specific cultivate (i.e. Technical and also tactical skills), and also 1.4 ± 0.2 h·day-1 top top aerobic and anaerobic cultivate (i.e. On-court and off-court exercises), and also strength training. Throughout competitive periods, the topics were involved between 2–3 times every month in continuous tennis compete (i.e., nationwide tennis circuits and also “International Tennis Federation Futures” tournaments). 15% that the participants were left-handed. The research was carry out in accordance with current ethical standards <27>, and also conformed come the references of the declaration of Helsinki. All topics voluntarily participated in the study after being informed about the scope and also methods of the study, and also delivered a written notified consent, with parental permission as soon as needed. Approval because that the job was derived from the Research values Committee the the nationwide Institute of physical Education, Generalitat de Catalunya.


Experimental design

In order come delimit the metabolic intensity zones during simulated tennis matches, all participants carry out an incremental tennis-specific endurance field test <15>, which was recently shown to be reliable and also valid because that the determination of

*
O2max and VT. 2 weeks after ~ the ar test, the participants played simulated tennis matches (i.e., 20 set overall). All tests and simulated tennis matches to be performed top top an out tennis court (i.e., GreenSet surface, GreenSet global S.L., Barcelona, Spain). During simulated matches, ventilatory gas exchange and HR to be continuously videotaped using a portable gas analyser and also HR monitors. Before any type of baseline testing, all participants attended two familiarization sessions to present the testing procedures and also to for sure that any type of learning effect was minimal for the research measures. To mitigate the interference of untreated variables, all the topics were instructed to preserve their habitual lifestyle and normal dietary intake before and during the study. The subjects were told no to exercise the day before a test and also to consume your last (caffeine-free) enjoy the meal at least 3 h before the booked test time.


Specific endurance tennis test

The check procedure has actually been explained elsewhere <15>. Shortly, participants had to hit balls coming from a ball an equipment (Pop-Lob Airmatic 104, France), alternative forehand and backhand strokes, cross-court or under the heat in a prescribed pattern (i.e., drive, topspin). The landing point for the balls to be chosen about 2 m in prior of the baseline, alternating balls come the right and also the left corners (Fig 1). The test started with a sphere frequency the 9 shots·min-1, which was increased by 2 shots·min-1 every 2 min. The test finished at the player’s request or quit by the researcher if the player to be no longer able to fulfil the test criteria (i.e., the player was no much longer able to carry out strokes v acceptable stroke method and precision, determined by the skilled researchers, with subjective observation). In addition to the physiological measurements, one objective evaluation of the technical performance (TE) was brought out. TE was calculated based upon the portion of hits and also errors, and two power criteria were defined: (1) precision: the ball went back by the player had actually to bounce inside the target (i.e., 3.1 by 4.5 m square located 1 m native the company line and also 1 m end the prolongation the the centre company line), and (2) power: when the sphere was bouncing within the target, it had actually to go over the power line (located in between 5 m indigenous the center of the baseline and also 4 m from the side line), prior to bouncing a 2nd time. A struggle was considered successful when both performance criteria to be fulfilled at once (precision and power). A minimum the 40 new tennis balls (Babolat Team) was used for each test. The ball machine was manually calibrated before each test and the device’s dependability was assessed by manual timing (mean CV of round frequency = 3.5 ± 0.9%) and using a radar device (Stalker ATS 4.02, USA) (mean round velocity = 68.6 ± 1.9 km·h-1; CV = 2.7%).


Physiological measurements

Ventilatory breath-by-breath gas exchange and five-second HR worths were repetitively recorded, beginning 2 min before the familiarization phase and also finishing 5 min ~ the end of the test (recovery phase). Expired air was analyzed consistently for gas volume (Triple digital-V1 turbine), oxygen concentration (zirconium analyzer), and carbon dioxide concentration (infrared analyzer) utilizing a portable gas analyzer (K4 b2, Cosmed, Italy). The portable measurement unit was lugged by the player in the same way during every tests. Heart rate monitoring (Polar S610, Kempele, Finland) was used alongside the portable unit the the gas analyzer. Gas and volume calibration of the measurement an equipment was done before each test session. Room waiting calibration developed before every test. VTs detection was done through analysing the clues of adjust in slope or breaks in linearity that ventilatory parameters <28>. Two VTs were established independently by two skilled observers according to the design proposed by Skinner and MacLellan <29>: VT1 or very first VT, and also VT2 or second VT (Wasserman’s respiratory tract compensation point). VT1 was established using the criteria of boost in the ventilatory tantamount for oxygen (

*
E /
*
O2) through no boost in the ventilatory tantamount for carbon dioxide (
*
E /
*
CO2) and also the leave from linearity of
*
E, whereas VT2 synchronized to an increase in both
*
E /
*
O2, and
*
E /
*
CO2.
*
O2max was established by the monitoring of a “plateau” or levelling off in
*
O2 or as soon as the boost in 2 successive durations was much less than 150 mL·min-1 <28>. HRmax was taken into consideration as the highest value reached throughout the last minute of the test.

Three main relative intensity area were characterized using a three-phase model based on ventilatory parameters (VTs zones) <23>: ar 1 (low intensity;

*
O2 at or below VT1), zone 2 (moderate intensity;
*
O2 between VT1 and also VT2), and also Zone 3 (high intensity;
*
O2 at or past VT2). This triphasic version uses the HR solution associated to reproducible metabolic demarcation clues (i.e., lactate or ventilatory thresholds), thus allowing to research the physiological strain during various species of exercise. It has actually consistently been offered in continuous sports <2325> and in team sports prefer soccer <26,30,31>. The HR-based model was previously used in tennis and defines 3 HR zones <12>: zone 1 (low intensity; max), ar 2 (moderate intensity; 70–85% HRmax), and also Zone 3 (high intensity; > 85% HRmax).


Simulated tennis set

Two weeks ~ the on-court check players carry out a simulated tennis set. Thus, in a time frame of 4 days, all subjects played one set against an adversary of similar level, bring about 20 to adjust overall. Throughout play the participants were equipped v a portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Italy) and HR monitor (Polar S610, Kempele, Finland). A collection of four brand-new balls was used for each set. Sets were played in accordance v the current rules of the international Tennis Federation (ITF) <32> on an acrylic surface (Green set; ITF classification 3), at similar time that the day (12:08 ± 02:14 h), through a stable environmental and also wind problems (mean approximately temperature 14.9 ± 4°C, wait velocity -1, relative humidity 54.4–61.0%). Before each set, subjects performed a standardised warm-up for five minutes, which had ground strokes (players to be asked come play the balls to the center of the court), volleys plus over head theatre (one player on the baseline, the various other playing volleys), and also services. Both coaches and researchers motivated the football player to exert us to their maximum throughout the games and to simulate the real complement play conditions as possible.


Statistical analyses

The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was provided to certain a gaussian distribution of the data. Typical values (± SD) to be calculated because that each that the variables analysed. The differences between the family member intensity calculate by the two triphasic models to be tested by paired college student t-tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was provided to to compare the percent of time (% time) invested in every of the three family member intensity area over tennis matches. The Tukey check was provided as a short article hoc test. Pearson product—moment correlation coefficients were offered to check whether there to be a far-ranging relationship in between percentage of time in every of the 3 intensity zones over the tennis sets, and also the players’ aerobic fitness parameters (i.e., VT1, VT2 and

*
O2max). The level of meaning was set at p 33>: 0.7 = large. All statistics analyses to be performed utilizing SPSS for home windows 15.0 (SPSS Inc., USA).

See more: 46-02 21St Street Long Island City, Ny 11101, Post Offices


Specific endurance tennis test

Table 1 reflects the values of the physiological and performance parameters corresponding to the intensity at which

*
O2max and also the ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) were attained. For TE, a full of 206 ± 27 hits to be made per test, of i beg your pardon 66.5 ± 5.9% were thought about to it is in successful.