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Trench war is a kind of combat in which the opposing political parties attack, counterattack, and also defend from relatively permanent solution of trenches dug into the ground.

The widespread usage of machine guns and rapid-firing artillery pieces on the western Front expected that any exposed soldier to be vulnerable. Defense from enemy fire might only be completed by digging into the earth. Strikes were carried out across "No Man"s Land" in between the the contrary trenches.

Trenches provided protection from bullets and shells, however they did bring their own risks. Trench foot, trench fever, dysentery, and cholera could inflict casualties as conveniently as any enemy. Rats, flies, and also lice were likewise commonplace.

Tanks and aircraft greatly negated the defensive advantages offered by trenches, but, when those modern technologies are lacking from a battlefield, trench warfare often tends to reappear. In the 21st century trench war was made use of in both the Syrian polite War and the Russian-backed problem in eastern Ukraine.


trench warfare, warfare in i beg your pardon opposing armed forces attack, counterattack, and defend from reasonably permanent solution of trenches dug into the ground. The opposing solution of trenches room usually close come one another. Trench warfare is resorted to when the remarkable firepower the the defense compels the opposing pressures to “dig in” for this reason extensively regarding sacrifice their mobility in bespeak to obtain protection.

Early developments

A trench system may begin simply as a collection of foxholes hastily dug through troops making use of their entrenching tools. These holes might subsequently it is in deepened so that a soldier can safely wake up in among them, and also the individual foxholes may be connected by shallow keen trenches. Indigenous this beginning a mechanism of an ext permanent ar fortifications might be constructed. In make a trench, floor from the excavation is provided to develop raised parapets to run both in front of and also behind the trench. Within the trench room firing positions along a elevated forward step dubbed a fire step, and also duckboards are inserted on the often muddy bottom of the trench to provide secure footing.

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The tactical ancestor of modern trench warfare was the mechanism of progressively extended trenches occurred by the French armed forces engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban because that the assault of fortresses in the 17th century. Trenches remained simply a part of siegecraft till the increasing firepower of tiny arms and also cannon compelled both sides to make use of trenches in the American Civil war (1861–65). The trench lines of the Petersburg–Richmond theatre of operations in the last months that that war were the foremost instance of trench warfare in the 19th century.