The chloroplasts of all of the following are assumed to be derived from ancestral red algae, except those of

A) diatoms. B) dinoflagellates. C) green algae. D) brown algae.

What is assumed to it is in the correct sequence of these events, from earliest to most recent, in the development of life top top Earth?

origin of mitochondria origin of multicellular eukaryotes origin of chloroplasts origin of cyanobacteria origin of fungal-plant symbioses A) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5 B) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5 C) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5 D) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2 E) 4, 3, 1, 2, 5

Which of this observations provides the most support to the endosymbiotic theory for the beginning of eukaryotic cells?

A) the existence of structural and molecular differences between the plasma membrane of prokaryotes and the inner membranes of mitochondria and also chloroplasts B) the similarity in size between the cytosolic ribosom of prokaryotes and the ribosomes within mitochondria and also chloroplasts C) the dimension disparity between most prokaryotic cells and most eukaryotic bio cells D) the observation that some eukaryotic cells lack mitochondria

According to the endosymbiotic theory of the beginning of eukaryotic cells, just how did mitochondria originate?

A) from infoldings that the plasma membrane, coupled v mutations of gene for protein in energy-transfer reactions B) native engulfed, originally free-living proteobacteria C) by second endosymbiosis D) indigenous the nuclear envelope urgently outward and also forming mitochondrial membranes E) as soon as a protoeukaryote involved in a symbiotic relationship with a protocell

An separation, personal, instance mixotroph loses its plastids, yet proceeds to survive. I m sorry of the following most most likely accounts because that its ongoing survival?

A) It relies on photosystems the float easily in its cytosol. B) It have to have gained extra mitochondria when it lost its plastids. C) the engulfs organic product by phagocytosis or through absorption. D) It has actually an endospore. E) It has actually multiple alveoli.

Which that the following was derived from an genealogical cyanobacterium?

A) chloroplasts B) mitochondrion C) hydrogenosome D) mitosome

Why deserve to eukaryotes be taken into consideration "combination" organisms?

A) several of their genes and cellular characteristics were derived from archaea, and also others native bacteria. B) they eventually developed flagella. C) their diversity outnumbers prokaryotes by end 1 million species. D) lock eventually occurred cellulose plates.

In a sample that pond water, a new organism is figured out with the complying with characteristics: It consists of 70 cells surrounding by strict cell wall surfaces that sign up with the cells together. Inside each the these identical cells are mitochondria and also chloroplasts. Together an organism would most likely be classified together a

A) early american photosynthetic eukaryote. B) fungal photosynthetic eukaryote. C) early american photosynthetic prokaryote. D) multicell photosynthetic prokaryote. E) colonial eukaryotic fungus.

Which of the complying with is the most likely sequence the events, native earliest to many recent, in the evolution of sponges (organisms with many cells that have various functions)?

single-celled eukaryotic bio single-celled prokaryote multicellular eukaryote colonial eukaryote A) 2, 1, 4, 3 B) 2, 1, 3, 4 C) 1, 2, 3, 4 D) 1, 2, 4, 3

The advancement of multicellularity in pets required adaptations the promoted

A) cellular migration and also intercellular communication. B) to move migration and cellular adhesion. C) moving adhesion and also intercellular communication. D) photosynthesis and also cellular migration. E) cellular combination and regeneration.

The last typical ancestor that fungi and also animals was most likely a

A) multicellular photosynthetic eukaryote. B) early american photosynthetic prokaryote. C) multicell photosynthetic prokaryote. D) single-celled eukaryote.

The advancement of multicellularity in animals has primarily developed by

A) transforming how existing genes space used. B) deleting plenty of old genes. C) producing many brand-new genes. D) deleting plenty of old chromosomes.

Multicellular nests of plant cells adhere to each other mostly by ________, conversely, multicellular nests of animal cells are frequently held with each other by ________.

You are watching: The term mixotroph indicates that a protist __________.

A) combination of moving membranes; cell wall surfaces B) cell walls; fused cellular membranes C) cell walls; proteins D) interlocking chloroplasts; interlocking mitochondria E) interlocking to move shapes; large, calcified capsules

Which the the complying with organism pairs is/are an instance of secondary endosymbiosis?

red algae–heterotrophic eukaryote eco-friendly algae–heterotrophic eukaryotic bio

III. E. Coli bacteria–photosynthetic cyanobacterium

Chlamydomonas and Gonium A) I just B) III and IV C) I and also II D) II and also III

Which the the complying with pairs the protists and their characteristics are mismatched?

A) apicomplexans–internal helminth B) mixotrophs–combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition C) euglenozoans–unicellular flagellates D) ciliates–red tide organisms

Which the the complying with statements around dinoflagellates is true?

A) they possess 2 flagella. B) All recognized varieties space autotrophic. C) your walls room usually created of silica plates. D) Many species lack mitochondria. E) your dead cells accumulate on the seafloor and also are mined to offer as a filtering material.

Why is the filamentous morphology that the slime molds thought about a instance of convergent development with fungi?

A) Water molds developed from filamentous fungi. B) human body shape shows ancestor-descendant relationships among organisms. C) DNA sequence analyses show that slime molds descended from various unicellular ancestors 보다 did fungi. D) Filamentous body form is evolutionarily ancestral for every eukaryotes.

Diatoms are largely asexual members the the phytoplankton. They acquire their nutrition from sensible chloroplasts, and also each diatom is encased within 2 porous, glasslike valves. Which concern would be most vital for one interested in the day-to-day survive of separation, personal, instance diatoms?

A) exactly how does carbon dioxide obtain into this protists through their glasslike valves? B) just how do diatoms acquire transported native one ar on the water"s surface layers to one more location on the surface? C) how do diatoms v their glasslike valves store from sinking right into poorly lit waters? D) just how do diatoms with their glasslike valves avoid being shattered by the activity of waves? E) how do diatom sperm cells find diatom egg cells?

A huge seaweed that floats openly on the surface ar of deep body of water would certainly be expected to lack which the the following?

A) alveoli B) bladders C) holdfasts D) flagella

Rhizarians that feed utilizing threadlike pseudopodia encompass which that the complying with group(s)?

forams red algae

III. Cercozoans

environment-friendly algae A) I and also III B) II and III C) I and IV D) II and also IV

A snail-like, coiled, porous test (shell) the calcium lead carbonate is properties of i beg your pardon group?

A) cat birds B) foraminiferans C) red algae D) cercozoans

The chloroplasts of soil plants space thought to have been derived according to which evolution sequence?

A) cyanobacteria → environment-friendly algae → land plants B) cyanobacteria → eco-friendly algae → fungi → land tree C) red birds → brown birds → eco-friendly algae → land tree D) cyanobacteria → red algae → environment-friendly algae → land tree

A biologist discovers an alga the is marine, multicellular, and also can absorb both green and also blue light. This alga probably belongs come which group?

A) red algae B) brown algae C) green algae D) dinoflagellates

Green algae differ native land plants in the some eco-friendly algae

A) room heterotrophs. B) space unicellular. C) have actually plastids. D) have actually alternation that generations. E) have actually cell wall surfaces containing cellulose.

Some researchers who research organismal classification think that environment-friendly algae need to be in an increased "plant" kingdom called Viridiplantae. If land plants space excluded indigenous this kingdom, then what will be true of it?

A) It will be monophyletic. B) the will an ext accurately depict evolutionary relationships than does the existing taxonomy. C) It will be paraphyletic. D) It will certainly be a true clade.

The finest evidence for no classifying the slime molds as fungi comes from slime molds"

A) DNA sequences. B) nutritional modes. C) choice of habitats. D) physical appearance. E) reproductive methods.

Which pair of choices is emphasize by the life bike of the moving slime molds, such together Dictyostelium?

A) prokaryotic or eukaryotic bio B) imreparable cells or multicell C) diploid or haploid D) autotroph or heterotroph

Which the the adhering to statements worrying protists is true?

A) every protists have actually mitochondria, return in some varieties they are much reduced and also known by various names. B) The primary organism that transmits malaria to humans by the bite is the tsetse fly. C) all apicomplexans space autotrophic. D) all slime molds have actually an amoeboid stage that may be complied with by a stage throughout which spores space produced. E) Euglenozoans that are mixotrophic absence functional chloroplasts.

Of the four supergroups the eukaryotes, i m sorry one includes red algae, green algae, and also all floor plants?

A) SAR B) Archeplastida C) Excavata D) Unikonta

Why is there conflict surrounding the eukaryotic tree?

A) It suggests that the unikonts space evolutionarily obtained from the archeplastids. B) It says that amoebozoans are an ext closely connected (evolutionarily) to red birds than green algae. C) The tree lacks branches for types that have yet to be classified. D) The root of the tree is uncertain such that it is unknown i beg your pardon supergroup was the an initial to diverge indigenous all other eukaryotes.

Which that the following is correctly defined as a main producer?

A) foram B) kinetoplastid C) apicomplexan D) diatom

You find a new species the aerobic, mixotrophic protist that can perform photosynthesis in reasonably deep water (for example, 250 m deep). That can additionally crawl about and engulf little particles. I beg your pardon two qualities does her protist need to have in order to successfully complete these tasks?

hydrogenosome apicoplast pseudopods chloroplast from red alga chloroplasts from environment-friendly alga A) 1 and also 2 B) 2 and also 3 C) 2 and also 4 D) 3 and 4 E) 4 and also 5

In a fabricated biology experiment, friend are given a task to style a brand-new species the aquatic protist. Your style should account because that the complying with characteristics:

The protist functions as a major producer. It can not swim ~ above its own. It must stay in well-lit surface waters. It must be resistant to physical damages from wave action.

Based on this criteria, you decide to model your production after a(n)

A) diatom. B) dinoflagellate. C) apicomplexan. D) red alga. E) radiolarian.

Which the the complying with is (are) mutualistic partnerships between a protist and also a hold organism?

cellulose-digesting gut protists—wood-eating termites dinoflagellates—reef-building coral animals

III. Trichomonas—humans

algae—certain foraminiferans A) I just B) II and IV C) I, II, and also III D) I, II, and also IV

Living cat birds contain brownish plastids. If worldwide warming causes blooms of cat birds in the surface ar waters the Earth"s oceans, how might this it is in harmful to the animals that develop coral reefs?

A) The coral animals, which catch planktonic organisms, might be outcompeted by the diatoms. B) The coral animals" endosymbiotic dinoflagellates may obtain "shaded out" by the diatoms. C) The coral pets may die from overeating the numerous diatoms. D) The diatoms" photosynthesis output might over-oxygenate the water.

Which 2 genera have actually members that have the right to evade the human immune device by frequently changing their surface proteins?

Plasmodium Trichomonas Paramecium Trypanosoma A) 1 and 2 B) 1 and also 4 C) 2 and 3 D) 2 and also 4
*

Judging from the table and given the water"s thickness and, consequently, its buoyancy decrease at warmer temperatures, in which setting should cat birds (and various other suspended particles) sink many slowly?

A) cold pure water B) warm pure water C) cold seawater D) heat seawater
*

Using dead diatoms to "pump" CO2 come the seafloor is feasible only if dead cat birds sink quickly. Consequently, application of mineral fertilizers, such as iron, need to be most effective at times once diatom valves

A) are thickest, and also laminarin is being developed rather 보다 oil. B) are thickest, and oil is being developed rather 보다 laminarin. C) room thinnest, and laminarin is being produced rather 보다 oil. D) room thinnest, and oil is being developed rather 보다 laminarin.

You room given four test tubes, every containing an unknown protist. Your job is to read the adhering to description and match these four protists come the correct check tube.

When red and blue light are shone on the tubes, oxygen balloon accumulate ~ above the within of check tubes 1 and also 2. Chemical evaluation of test pipe 1 shows the presence of a chemical the is toxicity to fish and also humans. Chemical evaluation of test pipe 2 shows the presence of substantial amounts of silica. Microscopic evaluation of biology in test tube 3 reveals the visibility of an apicoplast in each. Microscopic evaluation of the components in test tube 4 reveals thousands of cilia ~ above the surface ar of the organism.

Test pipe 4 contains

A) Paramecium B) Navicula (diatom). C) Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate). D) Plasmodium.

You space given four test tubes, each containing an unknown protist. Your task is to check out the adhering to description and match these four protists come the correct test tube.

When red and blue light room shone top top the tubes, oxygen bubbles accumulate top top the within of test tubes 1 and 2. Chemical analysis of test tube 1 suggests the visibility of a chemical that is toxic to fish and humans. Chemical analysis of test tube 2 suggests the visibility of substantial quantities of silica. Microscopic evaluation of organisms in test tube 3 discover the existence of one apicoplast in each. Microscopic evaluation of the contents in test tube 4 reveals hundreds of cilia top top the surface of the organism.

Test tube 2 contains

A) Paramecium. B) Navicula (diatom). C) Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate). D) Plasmodium.

You are given four test tubes, each containing an unknown protist. Your task is to review the complying with description and match these 4 protists to the correct test tube.

When red and also blue light are shone top top the tubes, oxygen bubbles accumulate on the inside of test tubes 1 and also 2. Chemical evaluation of test pipe 1 shows the visibility of a chemical that is toxicity to fish and also humans. Chemical analysis of test pipe 2 shows the visibility of substantial quantities of silica. Microscopic evaluation of organisms in test tube 3 discover the visibility of one apicoplast in each. Microscopic analysis of the components in test tube 4 reveals hundreds of cilia on the surface of the organism.

Test tube 1 contains

A) Paramecium. B) Navicula (diatom). C) Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate). D) Plasmodium.

You are given 4 test tubes, each containing one unknown protist. Your task is to check out the following description and match these 4 protists come the correct check tube.

When red and blue light are shone ~ above the tubes, oxygen balloon accumulate on the within of test tubes 1 and also 2. Chemical evaluation of test pipe 1 indicates the existence of a chemical that is toxicity to fish and also humans. Chemical evaluation of test pipe 2 indicates the existence of substantial quantities of silica. Microscopic evaluation of biology in test tube 3 discover the presence of an apicoplast in each. Microscopic analysis of the components in test pipe 4 reveals hundreds of cilia ~ above the surface of the organism.

Test pipe 3 contains

A) Paramecium. B) Navicula (diatom). C) Pfiesteria (dinoflagellate). D) Plasmodium.

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite the humans and also other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people. It have the right to infect civilization when castle drink water contaminated through feces include Giardia cysts. Upon ingestion, each cyst releases 2 motile cells, called trophozoites. These attach to the little intestine"s lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose from the host"s intestinal components to create ATP. Reproduction is totally asexual, emerging by longitudinal binary fission the trophozoites, v each daughter cell receiving 2 haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will regularly encyst as it passes right into the big intestine by secreting about itself a situation that is resistant come cold, heat, and dehydration.

Giardia"s mitosome have the right to be claimed to be "doubly degenerate," because it is a degenerate form of ________, an organelle the is itself a degenerate type of ________.

A) nucleus; archaean B) nucleus; bacterium C) mitochondrion; proteobacterium D) mitochondrion; spirochete E) chloroplast; cyanobacterium

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite that humans and other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people. It can infect human being when castle drink water contaminated v feces include Giardia cysts. ~ above ingestion, each cyst releases 2 motile cells, referred to as trophozoites. These affix to the little intestine"s lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose native the host"s intestinal components to develop ATP. Reproduction is completely asexual, developing by longitudinal binary fission the trophozoites, v each daughter cell receiving 2 haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will regularly encyst together it passes right into the huge intestine through secreting about itself a instance that is resistant come cold, heat, and dehydration.

Given its mode of reproduction and internal structures, i m sorry of the following should be expected to happen in Giardia in ~ some phase of that is life cycle?

separation (segregation) the daughter chromosomes crossing over meiosis A) 1 just B) 3 just C) 1 and also 2 D) 1 and 3 E) 2 and also 3

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite that humans and also other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people. It have the right to infect human being when lock drink water contaminated through feces comprise Giardia cysts. Upon ingestion, each cyst releases 2 motile cells, dubbed trophozoites. These connect to the tiny intestine"s lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose from the host"s intestinal materials to produce ATP. Reproduction is completely asexual, arising by longitudinal binary fission that trophozoites, through each daughter cell receiving 2 haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will frequently encyst together it passes right into the huge intestine by secreting approximately itself a case that is resistant come cold, heat, and also dehydration.

Unlike many excavates, Giardia trophozoites have actually no dental groove and also are can not to kind food vacuoles. Thus, we need to expect that is nutrition (mostly glucose) come come from

A) its mitosomes. B) endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. C) the ventral disk whereby it adheres to the intestinal lining. D) osmosis entailing aquaporins (proteins that transfer water across cell membranes). E) plasma membrane proteins that space transporters or pumps.

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite the humans and other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in many people. It have the right to infect world when lock drink water contaminated with feces include Giardia cysts. Upon ingestion, each cyst releases 2 motile cells, called trophozoites. These affix to the little intestine"s lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose from the host"s intestinal materials to create ATP. Reproduction is completely asexual, developing by longitudinal binary fission of trophozoites, with each daughter cell receiving 2 haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will regularly encyst together it passes into the huge intestine by secreting about itself a situation that is resistant come cold, heat, and dehydration.

During passage through the big intestine, a trophozoite will frequently secrete a case around itself, forming a cyst. Cysts contain 4 haploid nuclei. When cysts "hatch" within a brand-new host, 2 trophozoites space released. Thus, i beg your pardon of the following must take place within the cyst before hatching?

meiosis nuclear division S phase binary fission A) 1 just B) 1 and 2 C) 2 and 3 D) 2 and also 4 E) 2, 3, and 4

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite of humans and other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people. It deserve to infect people when lock drink water contaminated through feces comprise Giardia cysts. Top top ingestion, each cyst releases 2 motile cells, referred to as trophozoites. These affix to the small intestine"s lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose native the host"s intestinal components to create ATP. Reproduction is fully asexual, developing by longitudinal binary fission that trophozoites, with each daughter cell receiving 2 haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will regularly encyst as it passes right into the large intestine through secreting approximately itself a situation that is resistant come cold, heat, and dehydration.

The cysts of Giardia are many analogous to the

A) mitochondria of genealogical diplomonads. B) nuclei the archaeans. C) endospores of bacteria. D) capsids that viruses.

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite that humans and also other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people. It deserve to infect world when they drink water contaminated v feces include Giardia cysts. ~ above ingestion, every cyst releases 2 motile cells, dubbed trophozoites. These connect to the tiny intestine"s lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose from the host"s intestinal materials to produce ATP. Reproduction is fully asexual, emerging by longitudinal binary fission the trophozoites, through each daughter cabinet receiving two haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will often encyst as it passes right into the large intestine by secreting approximately itself a instance that is resistant come cold, heat, and also dehydration.

If the mitosomes of Giardia save no DNA, yet space descendants the what were once free-living organisms, climate where room we most likely to find the gene that encode your structures, and what accounts because that their existing location there?

A) plasmids; shortcut B) plasmids; transformation C) nucleus; horizontal gene carry D) nucleus; S phase

The major treatment because that giardiasis (infection with Giardia), trichomoniasis (infection through Trichomonas vaginalis), and amoebic dysentery (infection with Entamoeba histolytica) is a medicine marketed together Flagyl (generic surname is metronidazole). The drug likewise kills anaerobic gut bacteria. Consequently, i m sorry of these space cues that Flagyl"s mode of activity has nothing to do with attack or disabling flagella, as the drug"s name can imply?

Flagyl would also harm the flagellated lining that the human being intestine. Entamoeba possesses pseudopods, no flagella, however it is killed by Flagyl. No all anaerobic gut bacteria possess flagella, yet flagyl kills this bacteria. A) 1 only B) 2 only C) 1 and also 2 D) 2 and also 3 E) 1 and 3

Paulinella chromatophora is among the couple of cercozoans the is autotrophic, transporting out aerobic photosynthesis with its 2 elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are had within vesicles of the hold cell, and also each is derived from a cyanobacterium, though no the same form of cyanobacterium that offered rise come the chloroplastic of algae and also plants.

What must occur for asexual reproduction to be successful in P. Chromatophora?

mitosis S step meiosis equal circulation of cyanelles throughout cytokinesis A) 1 only B) 1 and 2 C) 1, 2, and also 3 D) 1, 2, and also 4 E) 2, 3, and 4

Paulinella chromatophora is one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, transferring out aerobic photosynthesis through its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are had within engine of the hold cell, and also each is acquired from a cyanobacterium, though not the same kind of cyanobacterium that offered rise come the chloroplastic of algae and also plants.

The the next living relative of P. Chromatophora is the heterotroph P. Ovalis. What kind of evidence permits biologists to make this claim about relatedness?

A) morphological B) ecological C) biochemical D) genetic E) fossil

Paulinella chromatophora is one of the couple of cercozoans the is autotrophic, transferring out aerobic photosynthesis with its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are had within motor of the hold cell, and also each is obtained from a cyanobacterium, though no the same form of cyanobacterium that gave rise come the chloroplastic of algae and plants.

The the next living relative of P. Chromatophora is the heterotroph P. Ovalis. P. Ovalis supplies threadlike pseudopods to capture its prey, which that digests internally. I m sorry of the following, if observed, would certainly be the finest reason because that relabeling P. Chromatophora together a mixotroph?

A) a threadlike pseudopod B) a vacuole v food inside C) a secretory vesicle D) a contractile vacuole

Paulinella chromatophora is among the couple of cercozoans the is autotrophic, carrying out aerobic photosynthesis through its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are contained within vesicles of the host cell, and also each is derived from a cyanobacterium, though no the same kind of cyanobacterium that offered rise to the chloroplast of algae and also plants.

Which of the adhering to represents the true significance of the finding the the cyanelles of P. Chromatophora stem from a different type of cyanobacterium than gave rise to chloroplasts?

A) This finding shows that there is a second evolutionary lineage of photosynthesis eukaryotes. B) This finding represents the very first time that major endosymbiosis has actually been directly observed. C) This detect is the strongest proof yet because that the theory of endosymbiosis. D) This detect is an example of the phenomenon well-known as "serial endosymbiosis." E) This detect is the very first evidence that eukaryotic cells execute not necessarily digest prokaryotic cells that control to gain accessibility to your cytoplasm.

Paulinella chromatophora is one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, moving out aerobic photosynthesis v its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are contained within motor of the hold cell, and also each is acquired from a cyanobacterium, though no the same kind of cyanobacterium that provided rise to the chloroplasts of algae and also plants.

If true, which of the following would be most vital in determining even if it is P. Chromatophora"s cyanelle is tho an endosymbiont or is one organelle, together the term cyanelle implies?

A) if chromatophora is much less fit there is no its cyanelle than with it B) if the cyanelle is less fit there is no the organize cercozoan than v it C) if there is continuous metabolic cooperation between the cyanelle and also the host cercozoan D) if there has actually been movement of genes from the cyanelle genome to the atom genome, such that these genes space no longer present in the cyanelle genome

Paulinella chromatophora is just one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, delivering out aerobic photosynthesis v its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are included within engine of the host cell, and each is acquired from a cyanobacterium, though no the same kind of cyanobacterium that gave rise come the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

If true, i m sorry of the adhering to is the ideal evidence that the cyanelles are offering nutrition (in other words, calories) to the bordering cercozoan?

A) if the cyanelle performs aerobic photosynthesis B) if the vesicle membrane the surrounds every cyanelle possesses glucose-transport protein C) if the cyanelle performs aerobic respiration D) if radiolabeled 14CO2enters the cyanelle and also if, subsequently, radiolabeled glucose is current in cercozoan cytosol

Paulinella chromatophora is among the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, transporting out aerobic photosynthesis v its 2 elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are included within engine of the hold cell, and also each is acquired from a cyanobacterium, though not the same form of cyanobacterium that offered rise come the chloroplastic of algae and plants.

A an essential photosynthetic gene the the cyanobacterium that gave rise to the cyanelle is referred to as psaE. This gene is present in the nuclear genome that the cercozoan, but is no in the genome that the cyanelle. This is proof of

A) reciprocal mutations in the cyanelle and also nuclear genomes. B) horizontal gene move from bacter to eukaryotes. C) hereditary recombination entailing a protist and also an archaean. D) the beginning of photosynthesis in protists. E) transduction by a phage the infects both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Including the membrane the the neighboring vesicle, how numerous phospholipid (not lipopolysaccharide) bilayers should be found around each cyanelle, and also which among these bilayers should have actually photosystems installed in it?

A) two; innermost B) two; outermost C) three; innermost D) three; center E) three; outermost

Healthy people of Paramecium bursaria contain photosynthetic algal endosymbionts of the genus Chlorella. Once within your hosts, the algae are described as zoochlorellae. In aquaria with light comes from only one side, P. Bursaria gathers in ~ the well-lit side, vice versa, other types of Paramecium gather at opposing side. The zoochlorellae administer their hosts with glucose and oxygen, and also P. Bursaria provides that zoochlorellae through protection and also motility. P. Bursaria can lose its zoochlorellae in two ways: (1) if retained in darkness, the algae will die; and (2) if food items (mostly bacteria) are absent from that is habitat, P. Bursaria will digest that is zoochlorellae.

Which term best describes the symbiotic connection of well-fed P. Bursaria with their zoochlorellae?

A) mutualistic (each types benefits indigenous the other) B) photosynthesis C) parasitic D) predatory

Healthy people of Paramecium bursaria contain photosynthetic algal endosymbionts the the genus Chlorella. Once within their hosts, the algae are described as zoochlorellae. In aquaria through light comes from only one side, P. Bursaria gathers in ~ the well-lit side, whereas other types of Paramecium gather at the contrary side. The zoochlorellae carry out their hosts with glucose and oxygen, and P. Bursaria provides the zoochlorellae with protection and motility. P. Bursaria can lose its zoochlorellae in 2 ways: (1) if kept in darkness, the algae will die; and also (2) if prey items (mostly bacteria) are lacking from that habitat, P. Bursaria will digest its zoochlorellae.

The motility that permits P. Bursaria to relocate toward a light source is detailed by

A) pseudopods. B) a single flagellum created of the protein flagellin. C) countless cilia. D) contractile vacuoles.

Healthy people of Paramecium bursaria contain photosynthetic algal endosymbionts that the genus Chlorella. As soon as within their hosts, the birds are described as zoochlorellae. In aquaria with light coming from just one side, P. Bursaria gathers at the well-lit side, conversely, other species of Paramecium gather at the opposite side. The zoochlorellae provide their hosts with glucose and oxygen, and P. Bursaria provides that zoochlorellae through protection and motility. P. Bursaria can lose its zoochlorellae in two ways: (1) if preserved in darkness, the algae will certainly die; and also (2) if prey items (mostly bacteria) are lacking from the habitat, P. Bursaria will digest that is zoochlorellae.

A P. Bursaria cell that has lost that zoochlorellae is said to it is in aposymbiotic. The might have the ability to replenish its contingent of zoochlorellae through ingesting lock without subsequently digesting them. Which of the following situations would be most favorable come the reestablishment of residents zoochlorellae, assuming the compatible Chlorella are present in P. Bursaria"s habitat?

A) numerous light, no bacterial food B) plentiful light, abundant bacterial prey C) no light, no bacterial prey D) no light, numerous bacterial prey

Healthy individuals of Paramecium bursaria contain photosynthetic algal endosymbionts of the genus Chlorella. Once within your hosts, the algae are referred to as zoochlorellae. In aquaria through light coming from only one side, P. Bursaria gathers in ~ the well-lit side, whereas other types of Paramecium gather at opposing side. The zoochlorellae administer their hosts through glucose and also oxygen, and P. Bursaria provides the zoochlorellae through protection and motility. P. Bursaria can lose its zoochlorellae in two ways: (1) if retained in darkness, the algae will certainly die; and also (2) if prey items (mostly bacteria) are absent from that habitat, P. Bursaria will digest that is zoochlorellae.

Theoretically, P. Bursaria can obtain zoochlorella one of two people vertically (via the asexual reproduction the its mother cell) or horizontally (by eating free-living Chlorella from its habitat). Consider a P. Bursaria cell containing zoochlorellae, but whose habitat lacks free-living Chlorella. If this cell subsequently undergoes countless generations that asexual reproduction, if every one of its daughter cell contain about the same variety of zoochlorellae as it had actually originally contained, and if the zoochlorellae are all haploid and also identical in appearance, then what is true?

A) The zoochlorellae additionally reproduced asexually, at boosting rate end time. B) The zoochlorellae likewise reproduced asexually, at a decreasing rate over time. C) The zoochlorellae also reproduced asexually, at a fairly consistent rate over time. D) The zoochlorellae reproduced sexually, undergoing mitosis and also meiosis.

Healthy individuals of Paramecium bursaria contain photosynthesis algal endosymbionts of the genus Chlorella. When within their hosts, the birds are referred to as zoochlorellae. In aquaria v light coming from just one side, P. Bursaria gathers at the well-lit side, whereas other species of Paramecium gather at the opposite side. The zoochlorellae carry out their hosts through glucose and also oxygen, and also P. Bursaria provides that zoochlorellae with protection and motility. P. Bursaria can shed its zoochlorellae in two ways: (1) if preserved in darkness, the algae will certainly die; and (2) if prey items (mostly bacteria) are missing from that is habitat, P. Bursaria will digest its zoochlorellae.

Which term most accurately explains the nutritional mode of healthy P. Bursaria?

A) photoautotroph B) photoheterotroph C) chemoheterotroph D) chemoautotroph E) mixotroph

When cat birds die, their shells loss to the floor that the ocean or lake the they inhabit and type sediments dubbed diatomaceous earth (DE).

See more: Answered: What Do Cs And Cl React To Form :, The Formation Of Cscl From Cs(S) And Cl 2(

Diatoms have the right to be identified by your shells. Different types of cat birds prefer different water temperatures. What information have the right to be got if researchers take samples the long-existing DE and also identify the diatom types that created it?

A) Scientists deserve to decipher evolution lineages between diatom species. B) Scientists can predict future fads in greenhouse gas emissions. C) Scientists deserve to learn around past climates. D) scientists can much better understand just how wind currents affect water temperature.

The diatoms" porous shells space hard however often rest and an outcome in sharp edges. Chop farmers incorporate DE into their soil to aid kill insect pests. Once insects conference DE, sharp covering edges reduced through their exoskeletons and then softer, damaged down DE absorbs insect human body fluids, thereby bring about the insects to die because of dehydration. Why could farmers who raise large livestock likewise use DE in the animals" feed?

A) The spicy shells can damage the organization of minister parasites and eventually death them. B) DE helps to slow-moving down the livestocks" cradle of food, thereby increasing nutrient absorption. C) The porous nature of the shells in the DE helps save livestock hydrated. D) DE urges growth of "healthy" minister bacteria.

The earliest fossil eukaryotic bio that deserve to be addressed taxonomically is of

A) a red alga that live 1.2 billion year ago. B) a red alga that lived 635 million year ago. C) a fungus that lived 2 billion years ago. D) one Ediacaran that lived 550 million year ago.

The development of facility multicellularity in eukaryotes

A) occurred only once, in the common ancestor of every eukaryotes. B) occurred only once, in the usual ancestor the all multicell eukaryotes. C) arisen only once, in the animal lineage. D) emerged independently in several eukaryotic lineages.

Plastids that space surrounded by an ext than two membranes are proof of

A) evolution from mitochondria. B) fusion of plastids. C) beginning of the plastids native archaea. D) an additional endosymbiosis.

Biologists think that endosymbiosis offered rise come mitochondria before plastids partly because

A) the commodities of photosynthesis might not be metabolized there is no mitochondrial enzymes. B) all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas plenty of eukaryotes perform not have actually plastids. C) mitochondrial DNA is less similar to prokaryotic DNA than is plastid DNA. D) there is no mitochondrial CO2production, photosynthesis might not occur.

Which group is incorrectly paired with its description?

A) diatoms–important producer in aquatic areas B) red algae–acquired plastids by second endosymbiosis C) apicomplexans–parasites with detailed life cycles D) diplomonads–protists v modified mitochondria
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Based top top the phylogenetic tree in the number given below, i m sorry of the adhering to statements is correct?

The most recent usual ancestor the Excavata is older 보다 that the SAR.

B) The most recent common ancestor that red algae and also plants is older 보다 that that nucleariids and also fungi. C) The many basal (first come diverge) eukaryotic bio supergroup cannot be determined. D) Excavata is the many basal eukaryotic supergroup.