Pre-1607 - prior to the come of the English the Virginia Indians had been life in what is now Virginia because that over 12,000 years. Cook Powhatan inherited six tribes that comprised what came to be known together the kai Chiefdom during this time. The powhatan Indian lands encompassed all of the tidewater Virginia area, native the southern side of the James flow north to the potomac River, and also parts the the eastern Shore, an area they dubbed Tsenacommacah. Its expectancy was about 100 mile by 100 miles. Before the come of the English, and also their foreign diseases, the population is estimated to have gone to least 25,000.

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May 1607 - once the English come Wahunsunacock, or much more popularly chef Powhatan, to be the mamanatowick (paramount chief) that the an ext than 30 tribes that made up the kai Chiefdom. These extr tribes had been gained through marriage alliances and coercion. Each tribe had their very own chief (weroance/weroansqua), yet all were "ruled" by Powhatan and paid "tribute" come him. By now the population of the members of the chiefdom was around 15,000 - these are the individuals the English communicated with most.


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17th Century sculpture of Captain man Smith

Unknown Artist

Winter 1607 - Captain man Smith was caught while the end exploring and taken come Werowocomoco wherein Powhatan lived. The two men conversed and came to an expertise of sorts and in the feather of 1608 Smith to be released. Powhatan then began to send gifts of food to help the English - his young daughter Pocahontas usually accompanied this visits together a sign of peace.

1609 - Smith was injured as soon as his gunpowder pouch captured fire and was sent home to England. Through his leave relations in between the kai Indians and also the English started to sour much more rapidly. Powhatan relocated from Werowocomoco come Orapaks, i beg your pardon was additional inland, to obtain away from the English.


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17th Century Simon van de pasy engraving of Pocahontas

Unknown british Museum

1610 - Pocahontas, who was now a young woman, married a kai "private captain" named Kocoum.

1613 - The English kidnapped Pocahontas to try and pressure the return the English prisoners and also stolen weapons. She was eventually taken come Henrico come live. Negotiations between the two peoples began.

1614 - if in captivity Pocahontas to be taught English ways, the Christian faith and also baptized Rebecca. During this time she met an Englishman called John Rolfe, that wanted come marry her. Through blessings from her father and also the governor, according to English accounts, the 2 were married. The marital relationship solidified a peace between the English and also the wharf that became known as the "Peace that Pocahontas." The rolls later had a son, that was named Thomas.

1616 - The Virginia company paid to send Pocahontas, she husband, their child son and several Powhatan ind to England. Their hope in act so to be to gain an ext interest in Jamestown.

1617 - Pocahontas came to be ill and also died in Gravesend, England. After ~ her death the peace in between the wharf Indians and also the English ago in Virginia started to unravel.

1618 - powhatan died. His succession was briefly passed on come his younger brother, Opitchapam, and also then come his following younger brothers Opechancanough.


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Indian assault of 1622

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1622 - exhausted of English development Opechancanough plan a coordinated strike on the English settlements. Since of a young Indian boy"s warning jamestown itself was spared. Numerous outlying settlements were attacked and of a population of around 1,200 settlers around 350-400 were killed. After your attack, on in march 22, the Powhatan ind withdrew, together was your way, come wait because that the English to load up and leave. The English did not leave and an ext conflicts arose and also continued on and also off because that the next ten years.1644 - back the English population had risen to about 8,000 Opechancanough was still upset around the English encroachment on the land and also planned an additional attack. When again about 350-400 English were killed.


1646 - Opechancanough, who was about 100, was recorded by the English. While in captivity he to be shot in the ago by an English security - versus orders - and also killed. His death started the end of the powhatan Chiefdom.1646/77 - Treaties to be signed in between the Powhatan and the English. They minimal access come lands that were thought about English and set up reservations. The 1677 treaty also collection up yearly tribute payment the was made to the English king. The wharf were currently English subjects.


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21st Century mattaponi Indian Reservation ceramic made in the classic manner

Sarah J Stebbins

1693 - The college of William and also Mary was established to teach American Indians and clergy. In the at an early stage 1700s governor Spotswood said the Powhatan ind he would certainly remit their yearly tribute payments if they sent out their youngsters to the school. By the late 1700s funding for the college to be diverted elsewhere and the college was closed come non-whites till 1964.

1700s - More Indian lands to be lost, consisting of the reservations of the Rappahannock (shortly after ~ 1700), the chickahominy (1718), and also the nanemond (who sold theirs in 1792). Some classic ways were still practiced, yet after decades of interactions v the English many Powhatan Indians to be identifying themselves together Christians and speaking English much more and more. By 1800 many of the native languages were no longer heard.

1800s - The desire to push the Powhatan ind off your lands started again. This time the details target to be the four remaining Virginia Indian tribes that still organized onto their reservation lands. The whites also wanted to end their standing as tribes. One reservation was sold by 1850 if another, the nottoway Reservation, was divided by 1878 (though plenty of families held onto your lands right into the 20th century). The Mattaponi and Pamunkey space the just two people that refused to offer in to the attempts and also still maintain their reservations into the present day.


1912-1946 - Walter Plecker to be the head of an essential statistics in Virginia during this time. He was a monitor of the eugenik movement and also a white supremacist. Plecker performed what amounted to "paper genocide" versus all Virginia Indians because he want to deny they existed as he assumed there to be no "true" indians in Virginia. In his check out if you had actually 1/16th afri ancestry, or through 1923 any trace of afri ancestry, friend were thought about "colored." He want all documents, such as birth certificates, fatality certificates, marriage licenses, voter it is registered books, and so on to reflect this by not utilizing the ax "Indian." The just two classifications according to Plecker were "white" and "colored."

1924 - The gyeongju Integrity Act to be passed. The said, among other things, that it was illegal for whites and non-whites come marry as well as recognized just two gyeongju classifications: "white" and "colored." Walter Plecker was a solid advocate because that it as he wanted to save the white "master race" "pure" and also because he refuse the existence of the Virginia indians - that he dubbed "mongrels." He believed the Virginia Indians wanted to escape "negro status" so they could go to white schools and marry whites. After ~ this act was passed the was simpler for plecker to obtain his wish in having files use only the state "white" or "colored." to escape Plecker"s aggressive project many Virginia indians left the state. This is the very same year the Indian Citizenship act of 1924 was passed. The plot granted all American indians United says citizenship - some had obtained it previously through marriage, one-of-a-kind treaties, receipt of allotments or through army service.


1967 - The United claims Supreme Court overturned the racial Integrity action in the situation Loving vs. Virginia saying "Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or no marry, a person of another race lives with the individual and also cannot be infringed by the State." Virginia indians were currently able come marry who they decided and more importantly to change their birth certificates come accurately present they were Indians, for a fee. After ~ 1997, once Delegate Harvey Morgan"s invoice passed, any kind of Virginia Indian born in Virginia might have their records readjusted for free.


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Close-up image of central piece the the photo collage in the Pamunkey Indian Museum

Sarah J Stebbins

1980s - By the finish of the 1980s over there were 7 tribes known by the commonwealth of Virginia who were part of, or ally with, the powhatan Chiefdom: the Pamunkey, mattaponi (both maintain their reservation lands from the 1600s), upper Mattaponi, Chickahominy, eastern Chickahominy, Nansemond, and the Rappahannock.The monacan Nation, that was never component of the powhatan Chiefdom, was well-known by the republic of Virginia throughout this time as well.


1990s-2009 - six of the state well-known tribes, all however the 2 preventive tribes, began seeking federal acknowledgment through an act of Congress. They have tried to get the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian people of Virginia Federal recognition Act passed many times over the years.In in march 2009 the tribes sent out the bill to the residence Committee on natural Resources to begin the procedure again. On April 22 the committee recommended the invoice be sent out on come the house of Representatives, who passed the on June 3. The Senate then referred a companion invoice to your Committee top top Indian Affairs, who had actually it sent to the complete Senate ~ above October 25. The bill was then inserted on the Senate legislature Calendar top top December 23, 2009. This is the farthest the bill has ever gotten in the congressional process.The Senate invoice later died as a an outcome of a host placed on that - by senator Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) - the prevented the from being heard and voted on through the Senate prior to 2010 came to a nearby (the finish of the Congressional session).


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Virginia Indian heritage Day at Jamestown settlement (2008).

Sarah J Stebbins

2010 - In at an early stage 2010 three much more tribes were recognized by the commonwealth of Virginia: the Patawomeck, the Nottoway, and also the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway). Over there are currently eleven tribes recognized by the commonwealth of Virginia and also eight who are Powhatan lower - the patawomeck Indian tribe joins the seven tribes the were state known in the 1980s. Around 3,400 civilization are lack members of this eight Powhatan descended tribes. The Monacan nation has 2,000 lack members, the notoway Indians the Virginia have actually 120 lack members, and also the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) ind of Virginia have 272 lack members.Collectively these eleven known Virginia Indian tribes own much less than 2,000 acre of land.The 2 preventive tribes, the Mattaponi and also the Pamunkey, continue to do the yearly tribute payments of fish and also game, currently to the Virginia governor, as stipulated in the 1646 and 1677 treaties. Plenty of other kai Indian and also Virginia Indian lower tribes space still living in Virginia, and elsewhere, today. Number of who quiet live in Virginia are at this time seeking state recognition.


2011 - In February, all six tribes began the process to acquire federal acknowledgment again, placing a bill in the US house of representatives (H.R.783) and a companion bill in the Senate (S.379) ~ above the exact same day. On July 28, 2011, the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs approved the Senate bill; the bill is currently waiting to be put on the Senate legislative calendar. The house bill is at this time in the home Subcommittee Indian and also Alaska aboriginal Affairs. Both bills continue to be in the exact same spot as of April 2012. If the bills do not pass by the end of 2012 (the finish of this conference session), the tribes need to start the procedure all over again.For the many up to day information on the bills:House version of Indian people of Virginia Federal acknowledgment ActSenate version of Indian people of Virginia Federal recognition Act


Gleach, freder W. Powhatan"s World and Colonial Virginia: A problem of Cultures. Lincoln: The college of Nebraska Press, 1997.

Kimberlain, Joanne. "We"re still Here." The Virginian-Pilot. June 7-9 2009: Print.

"Native American Citizenship: 1924 Indian Citizenship Act." NebraskaStudies.org. Web. 24 may 2009.

Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: three Indian Lives changed by Jamestown. Charlottesville: college of Virginia Press, 2005.

Rountree, Helen C. (editor) Powhatan foreign Relations: 1500-1722. Charlottesville: University press of Virginia, 1993.

Rountree, Helen C. The Powhatan ind of Virginia: Their timeless Culture. Norman: college of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Rountree, Helen C. And also E. Randolph Turner III. Before and After Jamestown: Virginia"s Powhatans and Their Predecessors. Gainesville: University push of Florida, 2002.

"U.S. Can be fried Court love v. Virginia, 388 U.S. (1967)." FindLaw. 1994-99. Web.3 February 2000.Waugaman, Sandra F. And Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, PhD. We"re tho Here: modern Virginia ind Tell their Stories. Richmond: salley Publishing, modification edition 2006.

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Wood, Karenne (editor). The Virginia Indian heritage Trail. Charlottesville: Virginia foundation for the Humanities, 2007.

Sarah J Stebbinsbromheads.tv Seasonal, may 2009updated June 2010, April 2012

Available online with the nationwide Park business is A study of Virginia Indians and also Jamestown: THE very first CENTURY by danielle Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D.

Additional info on Virginia Indians have the right to be obtained through the Virginia the supervisory board on indians website at: http://indians.vipnet.org/