If you"re brand-new to Excel because that the web, you"ll soon uncover that it"s an ext than just a grid in i m sorry you enter numbers in columns or rows. Yes, you have the right to use Excel because that the net to find totals because that a obelisk or heat of numbers, yet you can additionally calculate a mortgage payment, resolve math or design problems, or discover a ideal case scenario based upon variable numbers the you plug in.

You are watching: The formula used to multiply cell a1 by cell c1 is ____.

Excel for the net does this by utilizing formulas in cells. A formula performs calculations or various other actions ~ above the data in her worksheet. A formula constantly starts v an equal authorize (=), which have the right to be followed by numbers, math operator (such together a to add or minus sign), and functions, which can really expand the strength of a formula.

For example, the adhering to formula multiplies 2 by 3 and then adds 5 come that an outcome to come up with the answer, 11.


This following formula provides the PMT role to calculation a mortgage payment ($1,073.64), which is based on a 5 percent interest price (5% divided by 12 months equates to the monthly attention rate) over a 30-year period (360 months) for a $200,000 loan:


Here room some extr examples the formulas the you can get in in a worksheet.

=A1+A2+A3 adds the values in cells A1, A2, and A3.

=SQRT(A1) provides the SQRT duty to return the square root of the value in A1.

=TODAY() return the existing date.

=UPPER("hello") converts the text "hello" to "HELLO" by using the UPPER worksheet function.

=IF(A1>0) test the cell A1 to recognize if it contains a value higher than 0.

The components of a formula

A formula can likewise contain any kind of or every one of the following: functions, references, operators, and constants.


1. Functions: The PI() role returns the value of pi: 3.142...

2. References: A2 returns the worth in cell A2.

3. Constants: number or message values entered directly into a formula, such as 2.

4. Operators: The ^ (caret) operator raises a number to a power, and the * (asterisk) operator multiplies numbers.

Using constants in formulas

Using calculation operator in formulas

Operators point out the form of calculation the you desire to perform on the elements of a formula. Over there is a default stimulate in i m sorry calculations take place (this complies with general mathematical rules), yet you can adjust this bespeak by making use of parentheses.

Types the operators

There are four different types of calculation operators: arithmetic, comparison, text concatenation, and reference.

Arithmetic operator

To perform simple mathematical operations, such together addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division; integrate numbers; and produce numeric results, usage the following arithmetic operators.

Arithmetic operator



+ (plus sign)



– (minus sign)



* (asterisk)



/ (forward slash)



% (percent sign)



^ (caret)



Comparison operator

You have the right to compare two values through the adhering to operators. As soon as two values are contrasted by utilizing these operators, the an outcome is a reasonable value — one of two people TRUE or FALSE.

comparison operator



= (equal sign)

Equal to


> (greater 보다 sign)

Greater than


= (greater than or same to sign)

Greater than or same to


(not same to sign)

Not same to


message concatenation operator

Use the ampersand (&) to concatenate (join) one or more text strings to develop a solitary piece the text.

Text operator



& (ampersand)

Connects, or concatenates, 2 values to produce one constant text value

"North"&"wind" results in "Northwind"

reference operators

Combine varieties of cells because that calculations through the adhering to operators.

Reference operator



: (colon)

Range operator, which produces one recommendation to all the cells between two references, consisting of the two references.


, (comma)

Union operator, which combines multiple references right into one reference



Intersection operator, which produces one referral to cells common to the two references

B7:D7 C6:C8

The stimulate in i m sorry Excel because that the internet performs work in formulas

In part cases, the bespeak in i beg your pardon a calculation is performed can impact the return worth of the formula, for this reason it"s important to understand just how the order is determined and how friend can adjust the bespeak to obtain the outcomes you want.

Calculation bespeak

Formulas calculate worths in a specific order. A formula always begins v an equal authorize (=). Excel because that the web interprets the characters that monitor the equal authorize as a formula. Following the equal sign are the facets to it is in calculated (the operands), such together constants or cell references. These are separated by calculation operators. Excel for the internet calculates the formula native left to right, follow to a particular order because that each operator in the formula.

Operator precedence

If you combine several operators in a solitary formula, Excel because that the internet performs the operations in the order shown in the adhering to table. If a formula includes operators through the same precedence—for example, if a formula includes both a multiplication and division operator— Excel for the internet evaluates the operator from left to right.



: (colon)

(single space)

, (comma)

Reference operators

Negation (as in –1)





* and also /

Multiplication and division

+ and –

Addition and also subtraction


Connects 2 strings of message (concatenation)



use of parentheses

To readjust the stimulate of evaluation, enclose in clip the part of the formula to it is in calculated first. Because that example, the following formula produce 11 because Excel because that the net performs multiplication before addition. The formula multiplies 2 by 3 and then adds 5 to the result.


In contrast, if you usage parentheses to readjust the syntax, Excel for the web adds 5 and also 2 together and then multiplies the an outcome by 3 to create 21.


In the following example, the parentheses the enclose the an initial part the the formula force Excel for the net to calculation B4+25 an initial and then divide the result by the sum of the worths in cells D5, E5, and F5.


Using functions and nested attributes in formulas

Functions are predefined recipe that execute calculations through using details values, called arguments, in a specific order, or structure. Functions can be provided to perform straightforward or complicated calculations.

The syntax that functions

The following instance of the ROUND role rounding turn off a number in cabinet A10 illustrates the syntax the a function.


1. Structure. The framework of a role begins through an equal authorize (=), followed by the role name, an opened parenthesis, the arguments for the duty separated by commas, and a closeup of the door parenthesis.

2. Function name. For a perform of accessible functions, click a cell and press SHIFT+F3.

3. Arguments. Arguments can it is in numbers, text, logical worths such as TRUE or FALSE, arrays, error values such as #N/A, or cabinet references. The discussion you designate must create a valid worth for that argument. Disagreements can likewise be constants, formulas, or other functions.

4. Discussion tooltip. A tooltip with the syntax and arguments shows up as you type the function. For example, form =ROUND( and the tooltip appears. Tooltips appear only for integrated functions.

Entering functions

When you produce a formula that consists of a function, you have the right to use the Insert Function dialog crate to help you enter worksheet functions. As you enter a duty into the formula, the Insert Function dialog box display screens the name of the function, every of its arguments, a summary of the role and every argument, the current an outcome of the function, and the current an outcome of the entire formula.

To make it easier to create and edit formulas and also minimize typing and also syntax errors, use Formula AutoComplete. ~ you kind an = (equal sign) and beginning letter or a display trigger, Excel because that the internet displays, listed below the cell, a dynamic drop-down list of valid functions, arguments, and names that enhance the letters or trigger. You can then insert an item from the drop-down list into the formula.

Nesting functions

In specific cases, you may need to usage a duty as one of the debates of one more function. Because that example, the complying with formula supplies a nested AVERAGE function and to compare the result with the worth 50.


1. The AVERAGE and also SUM functions are nested within the IF function.

Valid returns as soon as a nested role is provided as one argument, the nested role must return the same form of value that the argument uses. For example, if the dispute returns a TRUE or FALSE value, the nested function must return a TRUE or FALSE value. If the role doesn"t, Excel for the web screens a #VALUE! error value.

Nesting level limits A formula deserve to contain up to seven levels of nested functions. As soon as one duty (we"ll speak to this function B) is provided as an debate in another duty (we"ll contact this role A), role B acts as a second-level function. For example, the AVERAGE function and the SUM role are both second-level functions if castle are used as arguments of the IF function. A function nested in ~ the nested AVERAGE duty is climate a third-level function, and also so on.

Using referrals in formulas

A reference identifies a cabinet or a range of cell on a worksheet, and also tells Excel because that the internet where to look because that the worths or data you desire to usage in a formula. You have the right to use referrals to usage data contained in various parts the a worksheet in one formula or usage the worth from one cabinet in several formulas. Friend can likewise refer to cells on other sheets in the exact same workbook, and also to other workbooks. Referrals to cell in various other workbooks are dubbed links or external references.

The A1 reference style

The default reference style by default, Excel for the net uses the A1 reference style, which describes columns v letters (A v XFD, for a full of 16,384 columns) and also refers to rows with numbers (1 v 1,048,576). This letters and numbers are dubbed row and also column headings. To describe a cell, enter the tower letter complied with by the row number. Because that example, B2 refers to the cabinet at the intersection of obelisk B and row 2.

To to express to


The cabinet in pillar A and also row 10


The range of cell in obelisk A and also rows 10 v 20


The range of cells in heat 15 and also columns B v E


All cell in row 5


All cells in rows 5 through 10


All cells in shaft H


All cell in columns H v J


The selection of cell in columns A through E and rows 10 with 20


Making a referral to one more worksheet In the adhering to example, the AVERAGE worksheet function calculates the mean value for the range B1:B10 ~ above the worksheet called Marketing in the exact same workbook.


1. Describes the worksheet called Marketing

2. Refers to the selection of cells between B1 and B10, inclusively

3. Separates the worksheet recommendation from the cell range reference

The difference in between absolute, relative and mixed references

Relative references A loved one cell reference in a formula, such as A1, is based upon the relative place of the cell that consists of the formula and the cabinet the referral refers to. If the place of the cell that contains the formula changes, the reference is changed. If friend copy or fill the formula throughout rows or down columns, the reference instantly adjusts. Through default, brand-new formulas use relative references. Because that example, if girlfriend copy or to fill a relative reference in cell B2 to cell B3, it instantly adjusts native =A1 come =A2.


Absolute references An pure cell reference in a formula, such together $A$1, always refer to a cabinet in a particular location. If the place of the cell that includes the formula changes, the absolute referral remains the same. If friend copy or fill the formula throughout rows or under columns, the absolute recommendation does no adjust. By default, new formulas use relative references, for this reason you may need to switch them to absolute references. Because that example, if girlfriend copy or fill an absolute referral in cabinet B2 to cell B3, it stays the very same in both cells: =$A$1.


Mixed references A blended reference has either an pure column and also relative row, or absolute row and also relative column. One absolute shaft reference take away the form $A1, $B1, and also so on. An pure row recommendation takes the type A$1, B$1, and also so on. If the position of the cell that consists of the formula changes, the relative recommendation is changed, and also the absolute reference does no change. If girlfriend copy or fill the formula across rows or down columns, the loved one reference automatically adjusts, and also the absolute referral does no adjust. For example, if you copy or fill a blended reference from cell A2 to B3, the adjusts from =A$1 to =B$1.


The 3-D reference style

Conveniently referencing many worksheets If you want to analyze data in the same cell or variety of cells on lot of worksheets in ~ a workbook, usage a 3-D reference. A 3-D reference includes the cell or range reference, came before by a range of worksheet names. Excel for the web uses any worksheets stored between the beginning and finishing names the the reference. Because that example, =SUM(Sheet2:Sheet13!B5) adds all the values consisted of in cabinet B5 on every the worksheets between and also including paper 2 and also Sheet 13.

You deserve to use 3-D recommendations to describe cells on other sheets, to define names, and to develop formulas by utilizing the adhering to functions: SUM, AVERAGE, AVERAGEA, COUNT, COUNTA, MAX, MAXA, MIN, MINA, PRODUCT, STDEV.P, STDEV.S, STDEVA, STDEVPA, VAR.P, VAR.S, VARA, and also VARPA.

3-D references cannot be provided in array formulas.

3-D references cannot be offered with the intersection operator (a solitary space) or in formulas that usage implicit intersection.

What occurs as soon as you move, copy, insert, or delete worksheets The adhering to examples define what happens when you move, copy, insert, or delete worksheets that are included in a 3-D reference. The instances use the formula =SUM(Sheet2:Sheet6!A2:A5) to include cells A2 with A5 on worksheets 2 v 6.

Insert or copy If you insert or copy sheets in between Sheet2 and Sheet6 (the endpoints in this example), Excel for the web has all worths in cells A2 with A5 indigenous the included sheets in the calculations.

Delete If friend delete sheets between Sheet2 and Sheet6, Excel for the web removes their worths from the calculation.

Move If you move sheets from in between Sheet2 and Sheet6 to a location outside the referenced paper range, Excel because that the web gets rid of their worths from the calculation.

Move an endpoint If you move Sheet2 or Sheet6 to an additional location in the exact same workbook, Excel because that the internet adjusts the calculation to accommodate the new range that sheets in between them.

Delete one endpoint If girlfriend delete Sheet2 or Sheet6, Excel for the internet adjusts the calculation come accommodate the variety of sheets in between them.

The R1C1 reference style

You can additionally use a reference style where both the rows and also the columns top top the worksheet are numbered. The R1C1 reference style is valuable for computing row and also column positions in macros. In the R1C1 style, Excel for the web indicates the place of a cell with an "R" adhered to by a row number and also a "C" followed by a obelisk number.




A relative reference to the cell 2 rows up and in the exact same column


A relative recommendation to the cell 2 rows down and two columns come the right


An absolute reference to the cell in the 2nd row and also in the second column


A relative recommendation to the whole row over the active cell


An absolute recommendation to the current row

When you record a macro, Excel for the net records some regulates by using the R1C1 referral style. Because that example, if you record a command, such together clicking the AutoSum switch to insert a formula that adds a variety of cells, Excel for the net records the formula by using R1C1 style, no A1 style, references.

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Using surname in formulas

You can create identified names to stand for cells, ranges of cells, formulas, constants, or Excel because that the web tables. A name is a coherent shorthand that provides it much easier to understand the purpose of a cell reference, constant, formula, or table, every of which may be challenging to comprehend at first glance. The following information shows common examples that names and also how utilizing them in formulas deserve to improve clarity and make formulas simpler to understand.