The Mexican–American War, 1846–1848

After the united States annexed Texas in 1845, border disputes led come war with Mexico in 1846.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsConflict through Mexico began when the united States annexed Texas together a state in 1845.Mexico claimed that the new border in between Texas and Mexico was the Nueces River, if the joined States challenged the border to be the Rio Grande.Fighting started when a losing of U.S. Cavalry was attacked near the Rio Grande.Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott led militaries to a collection of armed forces successes the culminated in the record of Mexico City in 1847.Key TermsTreaties of Velasco: papers signed in Texas on may 14, 1836, intended to conclude the hostilities in between Texas and also Mexico and also recognize Texas’ independence; however, Mexico never ever ratified them.annexation: The permanent acquisition and also incorporation of a territorial reality into another geo-political reality (either surrounding or non-contiguous).


The Mexican–American battle was an armed conflict between the joined States and Mexico the took location in 1846–1848. It occurred in the wake up of the 1845 U.S. Annexation of Texas, i beg your pardon Mexico considered component of the territory regardless of the 1836 Texas revolution in i beg your pardon the Republic that Texas claimed its independence.

The border of Texas as an elevation state had never been settled. The Republic that Texas declared land as much as the Rio Grande, based on the treaties of Velasco. However, Mexico refused to expropriate these together valid, declare the border to be the Nueces River. U.S. President James Polk endorsed the Rio Grande boundary, which incited a dispute with Mexico.

After a collection of failed negotiations with Mexico City, Polk ordered basic Zachary Taylor and his forces south to the Rio Grande to go into the are that mexican disputed. On April 25, 1846, a Mexican cavalry detachment routed the patrol, killing 16 U.S. Soldiers. In response, Polk asked for a explanation of war. Congress declared war on Mexico on might 13, 1846, after only a few hours that debate.

The War

The US army strategy had three key objectives: 1) Take control of northern Mexico, including new Mexico; 2) grab California; and 3) record Mexico City. The united state War Department sent a mounties force under basic Stephen W. Kearny to invade western Mexico native Jefferson Barracks and Fort Leavenworth, reinforced by a Pacific fleet under man D. Sloat. This was done primarily because of comes to that Britain might also shot to take the area. Two much more forces, one under man E. Wool and the various other under Taylor, were ordered to accounting Mexico as much south together the city the Monterrey.

California, Kearny, and also Sloat

US military Captain man C. Frémont gone into California in December 1845 and was gradually marching to Oregon once he obtained word that war between Mexico and the United states was imminent. On June 15, 1846, some 30 inhabitants staged a revolt and also seized the small Mexican garrison in Sonoma, California. The republic to be in presence scarcely much more than a week before the U.S. Army, led by Frémont, took over on June 23.

Commodore john Drake Sloat, ~ above hearing of brewing war and the revolt in Sonoma, bespeak his naval and marine forces to occupy Monterrey top top July 7. Top top July 15, Sloat transferred his command come Commodore Robert F. Stockton who placed Frémont’s forces under his orders. Top top July 19, top top receiving official word that the begin of war, Frémont’s so-called California Battalion gotten in Monterrey in a joint operation with several of Stockton’s sailors and also marines. The U.S. Forces easily took over the phibìc of California.

From Alta California, Mexican general José Castro and also Governor Pío Pico fled southward. Once Stockton’s pressures stopped in mountain Pedro, Stockton sent 50 U.S. Marines ashore. This force entered Los Angeles unresisted on august 13, 1846. V the success that this “Siege the Los Angeles,” the nearly bloodless occupation of California seemed complete.

Meanwhile, general Kearny’s forces fought in the decisive fight of Rio san Gabriel. The next day, January 9, 1847, the americans fought and also won the battle of La Mesa. Top top January 12, the last far-reaching body of Californios surrendered to U.S. Forces. That significant the finish of armed resistance in California, and the contract of Cahuenga was signed the next day, ~ above January 13, 1847.

Taylor and Scott’s Legacies

Led by Taylor, 2,300 U.S. Troops overcome the Rio Grande and headed towards the besieged city that Monterrey. The hard-fought fight of Monterrey resulted in serious losses on both sides. U.S. Soldiers were introduced to metropolitan warfare for the an initial time and had to readjust their fight tactics accordingly. The Mexican pressures under general Pedro de Ampudia at some point surrendered.

Battle that Monterrey: general Zachary Taylor and the US military defeated the Mexican army during the fight of Monterrey, lasting September 21–24, 1846.

On February 22, 1847, Santa Anna personal marched phibìc to fight Taylor in the fight of Buena Vista. Furious fighting ensued, throughout which the U.S. Troops were nearly defeated but managed come cling to their entrenched position. Rather than reinforce Taylor’s military for a ongoing advance, Polk sent out a second army under general Winfield Scott to start an intrusion of the mexico heartland.

On march 9, 1847, Scott performed the very first major amphibious landing in U.S. History in preparation for the Siege that Veracruz. Meanwhile, mortars and naval guns diminished the city walls. The impact of the extended barrage destroyed the will certainly of the Mexican next to fight, and also they surrendered the city after ~ 12 days under siege.

Scott then progressed on Mexico City on respectable 7. The funding was laid open in a collection of battles, culminating in the fight of Chapultepec. On September 14, 1847, once Scott gotten in Mexico City’s main plaza the city had fallen. If Polk and other expansionists referred to as for “all Mexico,” the mexican government and also the United says negotiated for peace in 1848, causing the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Battle of Chapultapec: U.S. Forces began their attack on Chapultapec, the main ft protecting Mexico City, on September 12, 1847, with an artillery barrage.

U.S. Occupation that Mexico City: This 1851 painting by Carl Nebel reflects the U.S. Occupation that Mexico City, which began after us forces captured the city in September 1847.

Treaty the Guadalupe Hidalgo

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in February 1848, was a triumph because that U.S. Expansionism under i beg your pardon Mexico yielded nearly half its land. The mexican Cession, together the conquest of floor west of the Rio Grande was called, contained the existing states of California, new Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and also portions of Colorado and Wyoming. Mexico likewise came to recognize the Rio Grande together the border through the joined States. Mexico citizens in the yielded territory were promised U.S. Citizenship later on when the regions they were living in became states. In exchange, the United says agreed to i think $3.35 million precious of mexican debts fan to U.S. Citizens, paid Mexico $15 million for the lose of that is land, and also promised come guard the residents of the mexican Cession native American Indian raids.

Victory in Mexico

American win in the Mexican–American battle yielded huge acquisition that land and also increased residential tensions end slavery.

Learning Objectives

Identify the areas that the united States obtained at the finish of the Mexican–American War

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAfter the U.S. Army occupied Mexico City, the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to be negotiated and also brought the battle to an end. The treaty gave the united States control of Texas, created the border in ~ the Rio Grande, and ceded other Mexican lands come the United states in the southwest.In return, Mexico got $18,250,000—less than fifty percent the lot the United states tried to market for the land prior to the opening of hostilities.In the unified States, increasingly divided by sectional rivalry, the war was a partisan concern and critical element in the beginnings of the American polite War. Many Whigs in the North and also South opposed it, while many Democrats supported it.Southern Democrats, man by a popular belief in manifest destiny, supported the battle in really hopes of including slave-owning region to the South and avoiding being outnumbered by the faster-growing North.Northern antislavery aspects feared the climb of a servant power; Whigs generally wanted to combine the economic climate with industrialization, not expand it with more land.The battle was one of the many decisive occasions for the United says in the very first half of the 19th century, serving together a milestone particularly within the U.S. Narrative of manifest destiny.Key TermsTreaty that Guadalupe Hidalgo: The peace accord, greatly dictated by the United claims to the interim federal government of a militarily lived in Mexico City, and that finished the Mexican–American war (1846–1848) ~ above February 2, 1848.Rio Grande: A river that flows indigenous southwestern Colorado in the United claims to the Gulf that Mexico.Mexican Cession: A historical name because that the region of the current day southwestern United claims that was gained in the contract of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Outnumbered militarily, and also with numerous of its huge cities occupied, Mexico can not protect itself and was also faced with internal divisions. It had actually little an option but come make tranquility on any type of terms. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed top top February 2, 1848, by U.S. Diplomat Nicholas Trist and also Mexican plenipotentiary representatives louis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto, and Miguel Atristain.

The treaty ended the war and also gave the joined States undisputed control of Texas, developed the U.S.–Mexican border together the Rio Grande River, and ceded come the United states the contemporary states of California, Nevada, Utah, new Mexico, most of Arizona and also Colorado, and parts the Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and also Wyoming. In return, Mexico got $18,250,000—less than fifty percent the amount the joined States had actually attempted to market for the land prior to the opening of hostilities—and the United says agreed to i think $3.25 million in debts the the Mexican government owed to U.S. Citizens.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: The an initial page the the handwritten contract of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican–American War.

Opposition to the Acquisition

The acquisition was a resource of controversy, especially among U.S. Politicians who had opposed the war from the outset. In the unified States, increasingly divided by sectional rivalry, the battle was a partisan problem and vital element in the origins of the American civil War. Most Whigs in the North and also South protest it, while most Democrats sustained it. Southerly Democrats, man by a popular belief in manifest destiny, sustained it in the wishes of adding slave-owning are to the South and avoiding gift outnumbered by the faster-growing North.

Northern antislavery elements feared the climb of a slave power; Whigs usually wanted to combine the economy with industrialization, not broaden it with much more land. Man Quincy Adams in Massachusetts suggested that the war with Mexico would add brand-new slavery region to the nation. North abolitionists attacked the battle as an attempt by slave-owners to strengthen the grip of slavery and thus ensure their ongoing influence in the commonwealth government. Autonomous Congressman David Wilmot introduced the Wilmot Proviso, i m sorry aimed come prohibit slavery in new territory gained from Mexico. Wilmot’s proposal did no pass Congress, however it spurred additional hostility in between the factions.

Those who supported for the war, in contrast, regarded the regions of new Mexico and California as just nominally mexico possessions with really tenuous ties to Mexico. They saw the territories as in reality unsettled (despite their large populations that American Indians), ungoverned, and unprotected frontier lands. The non-indigenous population there, where there was any at all, represented a substantial—in places also a majority—Anglo-American component. Moreover, the areas were fear to be under unavoidable threat of salvation by the unified States’ rival, the British.

Impact the the War

Manifest Destiny

The acquired lands west of the Rio Grande space traditionally referred to as the mexican Cession in the united States, as opposed come the Texas addition 2 year earlier. Mexico never well-known the freedom of Texas prior to the war, and did no cede its claim to are north the the Rio Grande or Gila River till this treaty.

While the Mexican–American War significant a far-reaching point because that the nation as a growing military power, it likewise served as a milestone specifically within the U.S. Rigid of manifest destiny. The resultant territorial gains set in motion many of the specifying trends in U.S. 19th-century history, particularly for the American West. In doing much to prolong the nation from coastline to coast, the Mexican–American battle was one step in the massive westward movements of Americans, i m sorry culminated in transcontinental railroads and also the Indian wars later in the very same century.

The politics of Slavery

The 1848 treaty through Mexico was one of the many decisive occasions for the joined States. In the first half of the 19th century. However, the did not carry the unified States residential peace. Instead, the salvation of brand-new territory restored and increase the dispute over the future of slavery in the west territories, widening the growing division between the North and also South and leading to the creation of new single-issue parties. Westward development of the college of slavery took one increasingly central and heated design template in national debates preceding the American civil War. Increasingly, the South pertained to regard itself as under attack by radical northern abolitionists, and also many northerners began to speak ominously that a southerly drive to overcome U.S. National politics for the objective of protecting slaveholders’ person property. Together tensions placed and both political parties hurled accusations, national unity frayed. Damage became almost impossible and also antagonistic sectional rivalries changed the idea the a unified, democratic republic.

The suggestion that enslavement be barred from the mexican Cession brought about a break-up within the autonomous Party. The 1840s to be a particularly active time in the creation and also reorganization of political parties and also constituencies, mainly because of discontent with the positions of the tendency Whig and also Democratic next in regard to slavery and its extension into the territories. The first new party to be the tiny and politics weak Liberty Party, established in 1840. This to be a single-issue party comprised of abolitionists that fervently believed slavery was evil and should be ended, and also that this to be best completed by politics means. In 1848, countless northern democrats united through anti-slavery Whigs and also former members the the Liberty Party to produce the Free-Soil Party. The party took as its slogan “Free Soil, totally free Speech, complimentary Labor, and complimentary Men,” and had one actual goal—oppose expansion of slavery into the territories.

The California gold Rush

The exploration of yellow in California in 1848 sent thousands of thousands of civilization West in search of fortunes.

Learning Objectives

Examine the demographics that the populace that participated in the California gold Rush

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe California yellow Rush began on January 24, 1848, as soon as James W. Marshall discovered gold in ~ Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California.The gold-seekers, recognized as “forty-niners” (in recommendation to the year 1849), come from across the unified States as well as from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and China.Although $550 million worth of yellow was uncovered in California in between 1849 and 1850, very tiny of it visited individuals.Gold was first gathered using basic techniques such as panning, yet as much more people arrived, more expensive framework was required for mining.As civilization flocked to California in 1849, the population of the new territory swelled indigenous a few thousand to around 100,000, and boom towns choose San Francisco formed nearly overnight.The gold Rush also had significantly an unfavorable effects top top American ind in the area, who were attacked and also pushed off their lands.Key Termsboom town: A community that experience sudden and rapid growth.panning: A type of classic mining the extracts yellow from a placer deposit.forty-niner: A miner that took component in the California Gold rush of the mid-19th century.

Seeking fortune in the West

The California gold Rush started on January 24, 1848, when James W. Marshall found gold in ~ Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California. The very first people come hear shown information of the gold rush to be in Oregon, the Sandwich islands (Hawaii), and also Latin America, and also were the very first to begin flocking come the state in so late 1848. The news of yellow eventually carried some 300,000 people to California indigenous the rest of the united States and abroad. Approximately half of those come by sea, while half came native the east overland ~ above the California Trail and the Gila flow Trail.

The gold-seekers, known as “forty-niners” (in referral to the year 1849), regularly faced considerable hardships on their trip. While most of the freshly arrived to be Americans, the Gold rush attracted 10s of thousands native Latin America, Europe, Australia, and China. In ~ first, the gold nuggets might be picked up turn off the ground. Later, gold to be recovered indigenous streams and also riverbeds using an easy techniques, such together panning. Much more sophisticated approaches were developed and also later embraced elsewhere. At its peak, technical advances got to a allude where far-reaching financing to be required, decreasing the proportion of individual miners to yellow companies. Although $550 million precious of yellow was uncovered in California in between 1849 and also 1850, very little of it saw individuals. While that led to an excellent wealth for a few, plenty of returned home with little more than they had actually when castle started.

Effects that the yellow Rush

The effects of the yellow Rush to be substantial. As world flocked to California in 1849, the population of the brand-new territory swelled from a few thousand to around 100,000. Mountain Francisco flourished from a little settlement of around 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 through 1852. Roads, churches, schools, and new towns were developed throughout California. The brand-new arrivals quickly organized themselves right into communities, and also the trappings that “civilized” life—stores, saloons, libraries, stagelines, and fraternal lodges—began to appear. Newspapers were established, and also musicians, singers, and acting carriers arrived to game the gold-seekers. In 1849 a state constitution to be written, a governor and legislature chosen, and also California became a state as component of the deteriorate of 1850.

New approaches of transportation arisen as steamships come into consistent service. By 1869, railroads were built throughout the country from California come the eastern united States. Farming and ranching expanded throughout the state to accomplish the requirements of the settler-invaders. In ~ the beginning of the yellow Rush, there was no law about property civil liberties in the goldfields, and also a mechanism of “staking claims” was subsequently developed.

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The gold Rush additionally had significantly negative effects ~ above American indians in the area, that were attacked and pushed off your lands. Observers in the gold fields reported abuse of American indians by miners. Some miners forced American indians to work their claims for them, while rather drove castle off your lands, stole from them, and even murdered them. Non-Americans were normally disliked, especially those from south America. The many despised, however, were the hundreds of Chinese migrants. Eager to knife money come send to their families in Hong Kong and also southern China, they easily earned a reputation as frugal men and hard workers who on regular basis took end diggings others had abandoned together worthless and worked them until every scrap that gold had been found. Plenty of American miners, often spendthrifts, resented their presence and also discriminated against them, believing the Chinese, that represented around 8% of the almost 300,000 that arrived, were depriving castle of the chance to make a living.