- chewing starts mechanical digestion - teeth cut/tear/crush food into smaller pieces- once chewing, outstanding glands secrete saliva, moistening the food make it less complicated to chew- saliva helps lull the passage of food v the digestive system and also begins chemical digestion - saliva consists of amylase, enzyme that breaks chem. Binding in starches and also releases sugars- saliva also contains lysozyme. I m sorry fights infection

You are watching: Section 38 2 the process of digestion

- from the throat, chewed food passes v the esophagus right into the stomach- food is moved along by muscle convulsion (smooth) - the contraction, peristalsis, squeezes the food through the esophagus to the stomach- cardiac sphincter close the door the esophagus when food has actually passed into the stomach
- food indigenous the esophagus empties right into the stomach- stomach proceeds chemical and also mechanical digestion - alternative contractions that 3 smooth muscle class churn food
- gastric glands that release substances right into the stomach - some glands create mucus, which lubricates/protects the stomach wall; create HCl, which provides the contents of the stomach really acidic; create pepsin, and also enzyme the digests proteins- pepsin and also HCl start protein digestion- pepsin division proteins right into smaller polypeptide pieces - other enzymes are denatured by stomach acid
- the stomach contract to churn fluids and also food, gradually developing a mixture known as chyme - ~ 1-2, the pyloric valve between the stomach and small intestine opens and also chyme flows right into the tiny intestine
- together chyme is propelled through the pyloric valve, it enters the duodenum (where many digestive enzymes enter the intestine
- produces enzymes that failure carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids- produces sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes stomach acid so that these enzymes deserve to be effective
- assists the pancreas- produces bile- bile dissolves and disperses droplets that fat in fat foods, which permits enzymes to malfunction smaller fat molecule - bile is save on computer in the gallbladder- attachment = helps break down cellulose in other mammals
- tiny intestine is adjusted for the absorb of nutrients - the folded surfaces of the small intestine are covered through finger like projections referred to as villi. - cabinet surfaces that villi have more projections called microvilli (provide an huge surface area because that the absorption of nutrient molecules) - slow, wavelike contractions the smooth muscles relocate the chyme follow me this surface- nutrient molecules are absorbed into the cells lining the little - most assets of carbohydrate and protein digestion are soaked up into the capillaries in the villi- molecule of undigested fat are soaked up by lymph vessels
- when the chyme leaves the little intestine, it enters the large intestine- clears water native chyme - water is absorbed quickly, which pipeline undigested materials behind- focused waste material passes with the rectum and also is got rid of from the body
- stomach mountain sometimes damage its lining, developing a hole in the stomach wall (peptic ulcer) - doctors provided to think peptic ulcers were caused by too lot acid, however now they know it"s brought about by the bacterium H pylori - diarrhea and also constipation




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