I is for Ignoble: Stereotyping indigenous Americans

By Arlene Hirschfelder and Paulette F. MolinPublished February 22, 2018

A common id in the modern-day United States, often unspoken and also unconscious, indicates that everyone has a ideal to use Indians as they view fit; anyone owns them. Indianness is a nationwide heritage; it is a fount because that commercial enterprise; it is a costume one can put on because that a party, a youth activity, or a sporting event. This feeling of entitlement, this expression that white privilege, has a lengthy history, manifesting itself in nationwide narratives, renowned entertainments, marketing schemes, sporting worlds, and self-improvement regimes.

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native the earliest period of europe colonization, photos of Indians found expression in early on drawings, engravings, portraiture, politics prints, maps and also cartouches, tobacconist figures, weather vanes, coins and medals, and also books and also prints. Initially, depictions of native males and females were offered to symbolize the phibìc American continent in the global iconography of the day, depictions that proliferated. The Indian Queen, an emblematic number in use by the end of the sixteenth century, symbolized the western Hemisphere. Her successor, the Indian Princess, became representative of the American colonies. During the Revolutionary period, America was shown as a feathered Indian defying brother tyranny in printed products of the day.

as the United says grew, it occurred a mythology the helped provide Americans through a laudable nationwide heritage while offer to rationalize the dispossession and also conquest of native peoples. As national Museum that the American Indian curator Cécile R. Ganteaume point out out, “American Indian imagery has actually been supplied by the federal government to identify the United states from other nations and also to specify the nation for that citizens, by U.S. Equipped forces come express armed forces might, by American enterprise to signify integrity and also by developers . . . To add luster and also cachet come commercial products.”<2>

Institutionalized transparent the nation and exported to various other countries, these images and also others include dual portrayals that the an excellent Indian (those who help Europeans) and the poor Indian (those who resist Europeans), nostalgic vanishing, brave warriors, romantic princesses, and countless ignoble images of brutality and degradation. Such representations obliterate or mask the realities the tribal countries struggling to maintain their populations, lands, resources, and also sovereignty.

Questions about indigenous civilization often start with terminology. “At the museums and also on social media,” Kevin Gover, director of the national Museum of the American Indian, comments, “people asking at least once every day when we space going to take ‘American Indian’ the end of our name.”<3> as he responds, “Native Americans use a selection of words to describe themselves, and also all are appropriate. Some world refer to us as native or Indian; many prefer to be recognized by their tribal affiliation . . . If the paper definition doesn’t need a much more encompassing description.”<4> through respect to Canada, Gover notes the “terms such as an initial Nations and very first Peoples room preferred.”<5>

American Indians are richly diverse, yet all too often their windy portrayals—in books, advertisements, shop signs, terminology, and also even children toys and also games—are considerably at odds with actual indigenous peoples and also cultures. Together the national Congress of American ind points out, “There space 567 federally recognized Indian countries (variously referred to as tribes, nations, bands, pueblos, communities and native villages) in the joined States. Approximately 229 of this ethnically, culturally and linguistically diverse nations are located in Alaska; the various other federally recognized tribes are located in 35 various other states.”<6> In addition, there room state recognized tribes across the country as well as other differences.

This essay explores selected themes centered on centuries-old stereotypes the American Indians: “Tomahawks and also Knives”: Stereotypical Violence; “Words are Weapons”: Language Representations; “Stereotypes Sell”: Commercialization that Indians; “Self-Shaping”: play Indian; “Braves” and also “Chiefs”: Indian Mascots; and also “I is for Indian”: human being of Children. That is shown with photos from the Jim raven Museum, drawn from its arsenal of objects illustrating Native Americans and consistent v its goal to tell stories of injustice towards all groups.

“Tomahawks and Knives”: Stereotypical Violence

Almost any portrait that we check out of an Indian, that is stood for with tomahawk and also scalping knife in hand, together if they own no other yet a barbarous nature. Christian nations can with same justice be always represented v cannon and also ball, swords and pistols.<7>

throughout U. S. History, Euro-Americans committed many acts of violence against Native people. Such acts incorporate extermination or genocide, theft that Indian lands and also resources, captivity and enslavement, required removals from homelands, and also schooling aimed at damaging Native cultures.

Violence continues today. A examine by the U.S. Room of Justice shows that “American Indian and also Alaska indigenous women and also men suffer violence in ~ alarmingly high rates.”<8>

In an American Psychiatric association blog post, research scientist Melanie Peterson-Hickey observes the high self-destruction rates amongst Native Americans are well documented, noting that the “trauma result from a background of race-based policy, discrimination and oppression has far-ranging and ancient impact.”<9>

Nonetheless, together Tuscarora chef Elias Johnson has actually pointed out, American ind are represented as barbarous, through tomahawk and also scalping knife in hand. In contrast, Euro-Americans are illustrated as chaste victims that savagery, specifically from Indian males.

it is thought that European depictions of Native world as violent date back to as early on as 1591, once engraver Theodor DeBry engraved and also published artist Jacques LeMoyne’s 1564-65 drawing of Indian scalping. Furthermore, from the 17th come the 19th centuries, non-Indian observers depicted Indians intent on “savage war” more violent 보다 “civilized” combat of European and also American governments. Increasingly lurid details the Indian savagery likewise appeared in captivity narratives, published from the 1600s come the 1800s, accounts of non-Indians captured and also held sinner by Indians. Dime novels, inexpensive booklets first marketed in 1859, ended up being popular as well. This bestselling fiction depicted Indians together savages preying ~ above defenseless Euro-Americans.

Wild West shows, performed throughout North America and also Europe indigenous the late 1800s right into the 20th century, dramatized Indian strikes on stagecoaches and cabins and also mock battles in between cavalry and also Indians. William “Buffalo Bill” Cody and also other showmen, including Plains Indians, drew substantial audiences. These shows, and also related influences, motivated filmmakers to create Westerns illustrating hordes of indians attacking Euro-Americans. As a matter of fact, numerous American Indians were taken captive through non-Indians, tortured, incarcerated, murdered, and also expelled right into slavery. Because Europeans and Euro-Americans homesteaders threatened aboriginal peoples, countless resisted mightily to safeguard their families and homelands.

The continuous perception that Indians together dangerous contributes to an adverse expectations, interactions, and also consequences. Thus, Indians space incarcerated at high rates, encounter discrimination and hate crimes, and experience other negative impacts. Stereotyped Indian violence additionally leads non-Indians to are afraid Native people.

Nonetheless, the “barbarous nature” representation of Indians, voiced by Elias Johnson, proceeds to pervade American society via college curricula, books and toys, sports teams, media advertisements, and other means. Together representations stop others from see Native human being realistically, including in a range of roles, settings, and also occupations.

“Words space Weapons”: Language Representations

In comparison to the inane stereotype the the Indian as soundless, we understand from the substantial storehouse of our oral traditions that aboriginal peoples were individuals of words. Numerous words. Impressive words. Cultivated words. They to be neither wordless nor illiterate in the context of their linguistic and cultural roots.<10>

Although an ext than 300 native languages exist in what is now the continental unified States, “as different from each other as Turkish, English, and also Chinese,” that number greatly decreased in the aftermath of europe colonization.<11> Indigenous population loss through an illness and war exacted a toll together did ongoing procedures to Europeanize and Christianize Native human being at the price of their very own cultures and also languages. Such measures contained the establishment of mission and also government boarding institutions to perform English-only and also other harsh policies. As commonwealth commissioners wrote, “their barbarous language should be blotted out and the English language substituted.”<12>

with English, a lexicon of words and also phrases became entrenched, a shorthand way to refer to all indigenous people, language showing stereotypical attitudes and behaviors. Savage, pagan, injun, brave, buck, chief, redskin, squaw, papoose, and other terms came to be commonplace. The an adverse impact to be heightened v the enhancement of adjective such together wild, dirty, pesky, sneaky, and also worse. “In one abusive society,” activist Suzan presented Harjo points out, “language is a manage mechanism . . . And also words are weapons used to signal standing information, such together who space the inferior and also superior folks.”<13>

“Words such as savage, buck, squaw, and also papoose,” author Mary Gloyne Byler emphasizes, “do not lug to psychic the same photos as execute the words man, boy, woman and also baby.”<14> While part words (squaw, papoose) have the right to be traced to specific Native languages, they have actually been gotten rid of from their social origins and turned into generic, pejoretive labels. Other terms may have been benign, yet have been weaponized over time, additionally by context. Even Pocahontas, the surname of a historical figure, is misused together a slur.

compounding slurs, media such as Hollywood films and also Wild West shows added to the id that American Indians, nevertheless of linguistic background, speak a fictional, substandard variation of English. Variously explained as Hollywood or Pidgin English or “Tonto-speak,” its grammatical markers encompass formulaic grammar, consisting of the use of “um” (“speak-um”) and “me” rather of “I” (“me speak-um”). This language came to be entrenched, endlessly repeated throughout time and also place. The portrays Indians together silent and wordless or incapable of speaking suitable English or other “civilized” languages.

“Stereotypes Sell”: Commercialization of ind

Stereotypes sell. To this day, consumers acknowledge the stylized Indian cook on cans of Calumet baking powder and the kneeling Indian maiden top top packages of floor O’Lakes butter.<15>

For thousands of years, merchants have actually used images of American ind to advertise and also market merchandise. Commodities include tobacco, connected with indigenous Americans, advertised via tobacconist figures, or cigar keep Indians, and also more. Follow to author Ralph Sessions, “English tobacconists were among the an initial to capitalize upon the image of the indigenous Americans.”<16> Figures, to plan to represent the citizens of the new World, advertised shops delivering the “Indian weed.” “The earliest visual proof of the use of a tobacconist number in America,” Sessions notes, appears outside a tobacco shop portrayed in one 1810 watercolor by artist Baroness Hyde de Neuville.<17>

The tobacconist figures, make from lumber or cast iron, soon ended up being popular throughout North America. At first, “the female figure . . . Was by much the more popular, outnumbering male figures four to one.”<18> Omnipresent together today’s neon signs and billboards, these numbers usually show up as generically “Indian.” Cigar save Indians and other products linked with tobacco continue to appear across commercial venues.

Marketers likewise invoked indigenous associations v herbs and also plants to sell medicinal concoctions. Popular throughout the 1800s, Indian medicine shows, a number featuring Indian or Indian-impersonator performers, pitched a range of patent or proprietary (across the counter) nostrums or remedies together cure-alls, among them Kickapoo Indian Salve, large Chief Liniment, and also Indian Stomach Bitters. The burgeoning declaring industry was patently instrumental to the climb of medication shows throughout the period. As author Brooks McNamara point out out, “Nostrum advertising ongoing to build on a prodigious range in nineteenth-century America,” through presses pouring forth “a sea of handbills, posters, flyers, totally free magazines, trade cards” and an ext to promote products.<19>

native food associations, too, added to companies promoting a range of assets using Indian names, titles, and also images. “Advertising objectifies,” writer Deborah Doxtator notes. “It transforms the photo of historical numbers such as Tecumseh … and Pontiac right into trivial objects that deserve to be possessed, provided up and also thrown away.”<20> The exact same is true the commercialization that exploits title (Big cook Meat Snacks) and “loanwords” (Squaw Peas). Furthermore, once companies appropriate tribal names choose Sioux (Sioux punishment Honey/Sue punishment Honey), they suggest an combination with particular Indian nations.

as soon as advertisers in America, Japan, and other countries began using images of Native human being after the 1850s, historian Daniel Francis writes: “Suddenly images of the Indian were appearing on the pages the mass-circulation magazines, ~ above billboards, on the shelves in ~ the regional supermarket.”<21> These photos relegate civilization to a timeless past. “Any appropriation that American Indian images or cultural imagery to offer a product,” scholar Victoria E. Sanchez asserts, “amounts come perpetuation the institutionalized racism and also is a contributing variable to insensitive stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and also stigmatization.”<22>

“Self-Shaping”: play Indian

While minstrel shows have actually long to be criticized together racist, American youngsters are quiet socialized right into playing Indian. Columbus work celebrations, Halloween costumes and Thanksgiving reenactments stereotype aboriginal Peoples together one large distorted culture. We space relegated come racist stereotypes and social caricatures.<23>

let’s Play Indian, a children’s book by Madye Lee Chastain, is one of many examples of play Indian, a practice engaged in by outsiders who appropriate, or take it on, American Indian identities and cultural ways. Chastain’s main character transforms herself into “a really truly dressed-up painted Indian,” that runs, whoops, and also waves her tomahawk.<24> together columnist Ruth Hopkins notes, “Some folks complete that because it’s acceptable to dress up as a cowboy, they should gain a happen for dressing up as an ‘Indian.’ Wrong.”<25> While youngsters frequently dress up to play a cowboy, nurse, or fire fighter, these room occupations. Gift American Indian is not a job or vocation. That is a human identity, tribally particular and integral to aboriginal personhood and also nationhood.

let’s Play Indian is not an isolated example of playing Indian. Actually, the practice has actually a lengthy history. Together scholar Rayna green writes: “Almost indigenous their very arrival in the Americas, Europeans found it useful, probably essential, to ‘play Indian’ in America, to demand that tribal individuals ‘play Indian,’ and to export the performances ago to Europe, wherein they thrive to date.”<26> The Boston Tea Party, which helped spark the American change in 1773, is an early example. Sounding battle whoops and masquerading together Mohawks, colonial men boarded pearls in Boston Harbor and also threw chests that tea overboard come protest brothers tea taxes. White males such together these to be the very first of numerous participants to connect in Indian play. Woodcraft Indians, Camp Fire Girls, young Scouts, Wild West and Indian medicine shows, hobbyists, and also sports teams are amongst numerous examples. Play Indian cuts throughout race, class, gender, age, and also group affiliations. Some world engage in such “play” temporarily, together in Halloween costuming, but others suitable Indian names and identities top top an continuous basis.

play Indian likewise extends come depictions of animals dressed as Indians in a range of products, including books and also toys. These portrayals space dehumanizing, saying that Native people are creatures of fantasy and also not totally human.

play Indian through one-size-fits-all pictures of American ind is contrary to actual indigenous peoples, previous or present. Such practices prevent other human being from discovering about, or understanding, indigenous America. Together “play” masks short per-capita incomes, high unemployment, bad health, and other realities. Together Philip J. Deloria, writer of Playing Indian, clues out: “…the methods in i m sorry white Americans have used Indianness in creative self-shaping have continued to be pried apart from questions around inequality, the uneven workings of power, and also the social settings in i beg your pardon Indians and non-Indians can actually meet.”<27>

“Braves” and “Chiefs”: Indian Mascots

Native American mascots have actually very tiny to perform with native Americans. They do not, nay, cannot, represent aboriginal men and also women. Much like blackface, together inventions and imaginings, supposed to represent a gyeongju other, tell united state much an ext about Euro-Americans….They reflect and also reinforce the basic features of racial and also gendered privilege in a settler society, specifically a sense of entitlement come take and also remake without consent and also to do so without the burden of history, the difficulties of knowing, or the threat of penalty.<28>

A well-known version of playing Indian occurred in the early component of the twentieth century in arranged sports, through team name such together Braves, Chiefs, Indians, Savages, Redskins, and Warriors. This monikers, evoking masculine ideals that bravery and also aggression, ended up being widespread in ~ a range of institutions, consisting of K-12 schools, colleges and universities, and amateur and professional athletic leagues and also franchises.

groups with “Indian” name come through a variety of practices, among them the adoption of “red-face” mascots costumed as plains Indians, ersatz Indian dances and rituals in ~ halftime, face paint and also feathered headdresses, and also the antics of war whooping, tomahawk chopping fans. Tape members, drill teams and also cheerleaders (including “Indian princesses,” “Redskinettes,” and also the like) contribute to the overall theme. Such depictions have end up being normalized, a familiar part of day-to-day America. “These images are so powerful,” activist Charlene Teters has actually testified, “that many non-native world do not see us as contemporary people v a valued history, life culture, language or a future.”<29> challenging such images requires seeing them for what they are (and are not). Author Dave Zirin, because that instance, notes: “I began looking into much more after a young girl of indigenous American genealogy saw the logo on a media folder in mine bag and asked me fearfully why ‘the male head had been chopped off.’” the concluded: “…once you watch it, you can not unsee it.”<30>

Team logos, rife through “chopped off” Indian heads, space emblazoned ~ above fields and also arenas, programs and also memorabilia, and throughout a variety of venues. Audiences, pan or not, space bombarded v radio, television, newspaper, and electronic media coverage. Teams, especially franchises worth billions of dollars, industry an astonishing selection of commercial products, such as pennants, caps, mugs, plates, notebooks, mascot figures, bobble heads, and also even toilet paper. Starting with infant apparel and also other merchandise, marketing is aimed at all period groups, the far better to groom fans and keep revenue flowing right into team coffers.

Demeaning “Indian” language, too, reinforces imagery, together in:

Hail come the Redskins.

Hail Victory!

Braves ~ above the warpath.

Fight for old D.C.

Scalp ‘um, swamp ‘um, us will

take ‘um big score.<31>

Although part teams have actually denied or sanitized racism versions of fight songs and other representations, the historic record expose the truth. Through efforts by adversaries of Indian mascots, a number of institutions, specifically at the K-12 and also college levels, have changed a variety of practices, consisting of team names. Professional teams such together the Redskins and also the Cleveland Indians have actually been the most resistant to change.

“I is because that Indian”: human being of kids

But ns am hurt and often outraged by just how my youngsters experience your Indianness in mainstream America.<32>

The resides of youngsters are saturated through American Indian stereotypes: “I because that Indian” in alphabet books, “Ten tiny Indians” song and also dance, plastic “Indian villages,” coffee-can “tom-toms,” cardboard totem poles, “Indian” Barbie dolls, Pocahontas costumes, and more. Together educator Jim E. Warne has actually testified, “Today’s mean U.S. Education around Indians is diminished to cutting out construction file feathers, coloring publication tepees and tomahawks, and Pilgrim hats because that Thanksgiving.”<33>

consistent with together instruction, “I because that Indian” as well often shows up in alphabet blocks, cards, and books. Juxtaposed through objects (A for apple, B for ball), that is additionally accompanied through a dancing, whooping, battle painted “Indian” and other stereotypical imagery. Besides objectifying aboriginal peoples, “I for Indian” is well-known to manifest “the anachronistic placement of past-tensed ‘Indians’ with modern-day items or settings.”<34> together anachronisms add to misconceptions around Native Americans, past or present.

Native human being are also treated as objects in counting songs, books, and toys. “Ten small Indians” is the finest known example by far, showing up in nursery college curricula, toys, recordings, games, YouTube videos, and also theater productions. Written in 1868 together “Ten tiny Injuns” through songwriter Septimus Winner, this fight “comic song and also chorus” functions “injuns” dying by different method “until there to be none.”<35> Adults continue to teach the song, seemingly oblivious to its violent, racialism history, counting down Indians come annihilation.

Clinical psychologists report that consistent encounters through false images result in Native children internalizing stereotypes the interfere with their developing positive self-images and racial identities. Likewise, researchers have actually studied the advancement of racial awareness, attitudes, and feelings in young children. “The first six year of life are important for the advance of every social attitudes,” psychologist Gordon Allport has actually written. “A bigoted personality might be fine under method by the age of six….”<36> because that writer mary Gloyne Payne Byler, “far from being harmless, stereotypes are one of the most usual manifestations of prejudice and also one the the many persistent.”<37>

whatever the source, inaccurate images and information about Native human being are an especially harmful throughout children’s formative years. In a study by children NOW, a child advocacy organization examining children’s awareness of race and also class in the media, indigenous youngsters stated they watch themselves as “poor,” “drunk,” “living ~ above reservations,” and “an invisible race.”<38> The children NOW study concludes the “Native American youth are concerned around portrayals of their gyeongju in the media.”<39> so are many historians and also other educators that object come the maltreatment of native peoples and cultures. Scholar Michael Dorris puts that bluntly: “To deprive our youngsters (who prosper up to become no less deprived adults) accessibility to the wealth and also sophistication of classic Native American societies is indefensible . . . This sweetheart trove the experience and also intelligence, perfected over tens of thousands of years residence top top this continent, is permitted to be overshadowed by dumb, racism drivel.”<40>


1 C. Richard King, redskins: Insult and Brand (Lincoln: university of Nebraska Press, 2016), 100.

2 Cécile R. Ganteaume, “Americans: significant New Exhibition Asks, Why Do images of American Indians pass through American Life?” National Museum that the American Indian magazine, vol. 18, no. 3 (Fall 2017): 20-27.

4 Gover, “Five Myths around American Indians.”

5 Gover, “Five Myths around American Indians.”

6 national Congress the American Indians, “Tribal Nations and also the united States: one Introduction,” January 15, 2015. Http://www.ncai.org/about-tribes (accessed January 13, 2018).

7 Elias Johnson, A aboriginal Tuscarora Chief. Legends, Traditions and also Laws of the Iroquois, or six Nations, and background of the Tuscarora Indians. Lockport, NY: Union publishing Co., 1881.

8André B. Rosay, “Violence versus American Indian and also Alaska native Women and Men,” U.S. Room of Justice, Office of righteousness Programs national Institute of Justice, may 2016. Https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/249736.pdf (accessed January 15, 2018).

9 Melanie Peterson-Hickey, “American Indians, psychological Health, and the affect of History,” American Psychiatric combination blog post, November 6, 2015. Https://www.psychiatry.org/news-room/apa-blogs/apa-blog/2015/11/american-indians-mental-health-and-the-influence-of-history (accessed January 15, 2018).

10 Emma LaRocque, “Here room Our Voices—Who will certainly Hear?” Preface come Writing the Circle: native Women of western Canada, compiled and edited by Jeanne Perreault and Sylvia Vance (Norman: university of Oklahoma Press, 1993), xv.

11 Elizabeth Seay, Searching for lost City: on the trail of America’s indigenous Languages (Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2003), ix.

12J.D.C. Atkins, “The English Language in Indian Schools,” in Americanizing the American Indians: works by the “Friends the the Indian” 1880-1900, ed. Francis Paul Prucha (Lincoln: college of Nebraska Press, 1978): 197-206.

13 Suzan shown Harjo, “Watch her Language!” Indian nation Today, July 4, 2001. Https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/news/watch-your-language/ (accessed October 26, 2017).

14Mary Gloyne Byler, “Taking an additional Look,” in Through Indian Eyes: The aboriginal Experience in books for Children, eds. Beverly Slapin and also Doris Seale (Philadelphia, PA: brand-new Society Publishers, 1992): 81-87.

15 Jeffrey Steele, “Reduced to Images: American ind in Nineteenth Century Advertising,” in Dressing in Feathers: The building of the Indian in American well-known Culture, ed. S. Elizabeth Bird (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996): 45-64.

16 Ralph Sessions, The Shipcarvers’ Art: Figureheads and Cigar-Store ind in Nineteenth-Century America (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton college Press, 2005), 86.

17 Sessions, The Shipcarvers’ Art, 86.

18 “Cigar-Store Indian,” in Encyclopedia of north American Indians, ed. Frederick Hoxie (Boston: house Mifflin, 1986), 123.

19Brooks McNamara, Step appropriate Up: one Illustrated history of the American medicine Show (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1976), 13, 16.

20Deborah Doxtator, Fluffs and Feathers: An exhibition on the signs of Indianness: A resource Guide (Brantford, Ontario: Woodland cultural Centre, revised edition, 1992), 46.

21Daniel Francis, The imagine Indian: The photo of the Indian in Canadian Culture (Vancouver, B.C.: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1993), 175.

22Victoria E. Sanchez, “Buying right into Racism: American Indian Product icons in the American Marketplace,” in American Indians and also the fixed Media, eds. Meta G. Carstarphen and also John P. Sanchez (Norman: college of Oklahoma Press, 2012): 153-168.

23Dwanna L. Robertson, “Playing ‘Indian’ and Color-Blind Racism,” Indian nation Today, September 20, 2013. Https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/news/opinions/playing-indian-and-color-blind-racism/ (accessed October 30, 2017).

24Madye Lee Chastain, Let’s play Indian (New York: Wonder Books, 1950).

25Ruth Hopkins, “My Native identification Isn’t her Plaything. Protect against with the Mascots and ‘Pocahotties,’” The Guardian, June 19, 2015. Https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jun/19/my-native-identity-isnt-your-plaything-mascots-pocahotties (accessed October 2, 2017).

26Rayna Green, “The Tribe dubbed Wannabee: playing Indian in America and Europe.” Folklore, vol. 99, no. 1 (1988): 30-55.

27Philip J. Deloria, Playing Indian (New Haven, CT: Yale university Press, 1998), 189-190.

28C. Richard King, redskins: Insult and Brand, 31-32.

29Charlene Teters, in “Stolen Identities: The affect of racism Stereotypes on indigenous People,” Hearing prior to the Committee top top Indian Affairs, United claims Senate, 112th Congress, may 5, 2011. Https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg66994/pdf/CHRG-112shrg66994.pdf (accessed October 29, 2017).

30Dave Zirin, “You can’t Unsee It: Washington football Name and also Quiet plot of Resistance,” The Nation, September 5, 2014. Https://www.thenation.com/article/you-cant-unsee-it-redskins-and-quiet-acts-resistance/ (accessed October 6, 2017).

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31Connie Griffith, My Life with the Redskins (New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1947), 39.

32Nancy Marie Mithlo, “Our Indian Princess”: Subverting the Stereotype (Santa Fe, NM: college for advanced Research, 2009), viii.

33Jim E. Warne, in “Stolen Identities: The impact of racist Stereotypes on native People.” https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg66994/pdf/CHRG-112shrg66994.pdf (accessed October 29, 2017).

34Robert B. Moore and also Arlene Hirschfelder, “Feathers, Tomahawks and Tipis: A examine of Stereotyped ‘Indian’ Imagery in Children’s snapshot Books,” in American Indian Stereotypes in the civilization of Children: A Reader and also Bibliography, second ed., eds. Arlene Hirschfelder, Paulette Fairbanks Molin, and Yvonne Wakim (Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 1999): 55-80.

35Julianne Jennings, “The history of ‘Ten small Indians,’” Indian country Today, October 11, 2012. Https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/culture/social-issues/the-history-of-ten-little-indians/ (accessed January 15, 2018).

36Gordon Allport, The Nature that Prejudice (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley publishing Co., 1954), 297.

37Mary Gloyne Payne, “Editorial: mar Gloyne Payne,” Indian Affairs, no. 62 (December 1965), 5.

38Children NOW. A various World: native American children’s Perceptions of Race and Class in the Media. (Oakland, CA: children NOW, 1999), https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED436234.pdf (accessed January 15, 2018).

39Children NOW.

40Michael A. Dorris, “Foreword come the an initial Edition,” in American Indian Stereotypes in the world of Children: A Reader and Bibliography, 2nd ed., vii-viii.