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Born:1453Portugal...(Show more)Died:December 15, 1515 (aged 62)Arabian SeaIndia...(Show more)Role In:Portuguese occupation of Goa...(Show more)
Afonso de Albuquerque, likewise called Afonso de Albuquerque the Great, (born 1453, Alhandra, close to Lisbon, Portugal—died December 15, 1515, in ~ sea, turn off Goa, India), Portuguese soldier, conqueror of Goa (1510) in India and also of Melaka (1511) ~ above the Malay Peninsula. His program to gain manage of every the key maritime trade routes of the East and to develop permanent fortresses with settled populations set the foundations of Portuguese hegemony in the Orient.
Albuquerque to be the 2nd son of the senhor of Vila Verde. His paternal great-grandfather and grandfather had been confidential secretaries to monarchs John I and also Edward (Duarte), and also his maternal grand had been admiral of Portugal. Albuquerque served 10 year in north Africa, where he gained at an early stage military experience crusading against Muslims. That was present at Afonso V’s occupation of Asilah and Tangier in 1471. King john II (ruled 1481–95) made him master of the horse, a post Albuquerque hosted throughout the reign. In 1489 that again offered in north Africa at the defense of Graciosa. Under John’s successor, Manuel I, Albuquerque to be less prominent at court yet again served in Morocco.
Although Albuquerque do his mark under the stern man II and also gained his suffer in Africa, his call rests on his organization in the East. As soon as Vasco da Gama returned to Portugal in 1499 native his pioneering voyage around the Cape of an excellent Hope come India, King Manuel straightway sent a second fleet under Pedro Álvares Cabral to open relations and trade v the Indian rulers. The Muslim traders who had actually monopolized the circulation of flavors turned the zamorin (Hindu prince) that Calicut (now Kozhikode) against the Portuguese. His dependency, however, Cochin (now Kochi), top top the southwestern Indian coast, welcomed them. In 1503 Albuquerque arrived with his cousin Francisco to safeguard the ruler of Cochin, whereby he developed the an initial Portuguese fortress in Asia and placed a garrison. After setup up a trading article at Quilon (now Kollam), he returned to Lisbon in July 1504, where he was well obtained by Manuel and also participated in the formulation that policy. In 1505 Manuel appointed Dom Francisco de Almeida very first governor in India, v the rank of viceroy. Almeida’s object to be to build trade and aid the allies of the Portuguese.
Albuquerque left Lisbon through Tristão da Cunha in April 1506 to discover the east shore of Africa and build a fortress top top the island that Socotra come block the mouth that the Red Sea and also cut turn off Arab trade through India. This done (August 1507), Albuquerque captured Hormuz (Ormuz), an island in the channel in between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to open up Persian trade v Europe. His project of structure a fortress in ~ Hormuz had actually to it is in abandoned due to the fact that of distinctions with his captains, who departed because that India. Albuquerque, though left with just two ships, ongoing to raid the Persian and Arabian coasts.
King Manuel appointed Albuquerque to success Almeida in ~ the finish of his term, though without the location of viceroy. Once Albuquerque got to India in December 1508, Almeida had actually crushed the improvised sea force of Calicut, however a navy from Egypt had defeated and also killed his son. Insisting on retaining power until he had actually avenged his young death, Almeida, to stop interference, had Albuquerque imprisoned. Almeida defeated the Muslims turn off Diu in February 1509, and also it was just in the complying with November, with the arrival of a fleet indigenous Portugal, that he lastly turned his office over to Albuquerque.
Albuquerque’s setup was to assume active control over every the key maritime trade paths of the East and to create permanent fortresses with settled populations. His attempt to seize Cochin in January 1510 was unsuccessful. Through February Albuquerque had actually realized that it was better to try to supplant the Muslims; assisted by a powerful corsair called Timoja, he take it 23 pearl to strike Goa, lengthy ruled by Muslim princes. He inhabited it in march 1510, was required out that the citadel by a Muslim army in May, and was finally able to carry it by assault in November. The Muslim defenders were placed to the sword.
After this success over the Muslims, the Hindu rulers embraced the Portuguese existence in India. Albuquerque plan to use Goa together a naval base against the Muslims, to draw away the spice profession to it, and also to use it to it is provided Persian equines to the Hindu princes. By marrying his males to regional women, he would offer Goa its own population, and also its gives would be assured by the village communities under a distinct regime. After providing for the government of Goa, Albuquerque carried out the conquest of Malacca (now Melaka), ~ above the Malay Peninsula, the immediate allude of distribution for the spice Islands and points east. He took the port in July 1511, garrisoned it, and also sent ships in search of spices.
In the during Goa to be again under heavy attack. That left in January 1512 and relieved Goa. Having established himself there and having gained regulate over the motion of items by a license system, Albuquerque again turned come the Red Sea, acquisition a pressure of Portuguese and also Indians. Due to the fact that Socotra was insufficient as a base, that attempted to take Aden, however his forces proved insufficient. The thereupon discover the Arabian and also Abyssinian coasts. Return to India, he finally subdued Calicut, hitherto the main seat of opposition to the Portuguese.
In February 1515 that again left Goa with 26 ships because that Hormuz, gaining regulate of component of the island. He to be taken ill in September and also turned earlier to Goa. ~ above the way he learned that he had actually been superseded by his an individual enemy, Lope Soares, and he died embittered on shipboard prior to reaching his destination.
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Albuquerque’s plans obtained from the crusading spirit of john II and others. He did not allow himself to be diverted from his schemes through considerations that mercantile gain. His boldest concepts, together as turning the Persians against the Turks or destroying Egypt by diverting the food of the Nile, were probably superhuman, yet so maybe was his achievement.