Freud ended up being interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that details patients’ symptoms:

a. Result from the physical abuse they got from their parents during childhood.

You are watching: Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit

b. Resulted from the loss of an internal locus of control.

c. Might not be removed by method of hypnosis.

d. Can not be explained readily in terms of neurological impairments.


. Freud it was observed that particular symptoms of illness were relieved once patients talked freely about their past. This led Freud to suspect that these symptoms result from:

a. Hereditary defects.

b. An inferiority complex.

c. Psychological processes.

d. An inner locus of control.

e. Reciprocal determinism.


The usage of cost-free association is main to the process of:

a. Identification.

b. Self-actualization.

c. Psychoanalysis.

d. Mutual determinism.

e. Unconditional confident regard.


Which that the following techniques did Freud use to find the latent contents of his patients’ dreams?

a. Fixation

b. Variable analysis

c. Projective testing

d. Totally free association

e. The Barnum effect


A psychotherapist instructs David to relax, near his eyes, and state aloud everything thoughts pertained to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is making use of a an approach known as:

a. Fixation.

b. Totally free association.

c. Reaction formation.

d. Hypnosis.

e. Projection.


Forgotten storage that us can conveniently recall were said by Freud come be:

a. Displaced.

b. Projected.

c. Preconscious.

d. Fixated.

e. Unconscious.


According to Freud, the unconscious is:

a. The component of person personality that lacks a sense of right and also wrong.

b. The thoughts, wishes, feelings, and also memories, that which we are greatly unaware.

c. A set of universal concepts acquired by all human beings from our common past.

d. A reservoir of deep repressed memories that does not affect behavior.

e. Every the above.


Freud thought that ________ space the “royal road to the unconscious.”

a. Projective tests

b. Dreams

c. Erogenous zones

d. Psychosexual stages

e. Hypnotic trances


According come psychoanalytic theory, the component of the personality that strives for prompt gratification of straightforward drives is the: a. Id. B. Ego. C. Superego. D. Collective unconscious.
When 2‑year‑old Matthew to be told that would obtain no dessert until he perfect the food on his plate, the threw his bowl on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would certainly have suggested that Matthew to be unable to stand up to the needs of his: a. Superego. B. Collective unconscious. C. Ego. D. Id. E. Oedipus complex.

Ego is to id as ________ is to ________.

a. Personality; cumulative unconscious

b. Morality; biology

c. Life instinct; death instinct

d. Reality principle; satisfied principle

e. Self‑esteem; self‑serving bias


When 16‑year‑old Hafez received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to acquisition an expensive brand-new car. He decided, instead, come deposit every the money in a save account because that his college education. Hafez shows signs of a:

a. Solid self‑serving bias.

b. Weak id.

c. Solid collective unconscious.

d. Strong ego.

e. Strong external locus of control.


According to Freud, the personality device that to represent our sense of right and wrong and also our ideal standards is the:

a. Cumulative unconscious.

b. Ego.

c. Self‑concept.

d. Id.

e. Superego.


Janine experiences feelings of revulsion at the possibility of city hall a pornographic video. Freud would have actually attributed these feelings come Janine’s:

a. Ego.

b. Id.

c. Superego.

d. Cumulative unconscious.


No matter how long and also hard Oprah studies, she constantly feels she there is no studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Oprah shows signs of a:

a. Weak id.

b. Weak ego.

c. Weak superego.

d. Solid id.

e. Solid superego.


Elmer wants to it is in a loving husband but at the exact same time desires to refer his disgust for few of his wife’s habits. According to Freud, Elmer’s ________ might allow him come partially fulfill both desires.

a. Actualized self

b. Collective unconscious

c. Superego

d. Oedipus complex

e. Ego


During the early psychosexual stages, the id derives pleasure from distinct:

a. Gender identities.

b. Defense mechanisms.

c. Erogenous zones.

d. Identifications.

e. Complexes.


Two‑year‑old Donald commonly refuses to follow his parents due to the fact that he derives tremendous pleasure from demonstrating his independence. Freud would have suggested that Donald is going through the ________ stage of development.

a. Phallic

b. Anal

c. Genital

d. Latency

e. Oral


According come Freud, boys room most likely to suffer the Oedipus facility during the ________ stage.

a. Anal

b. Phallic

c. Oral

d. Latency


According to psychoanalytic theory, boys’ are afraid of castration is most closely connected with:

a. An dental fixation.

b. Cost-free association.

c. Learned helplessness.

d. The Oedipus complex.

e. The genital stage.


One night after that heard his parents arguing, 4‑year‑old Wei had a lively dream in i beg your pardon he saved his mom from gift bitten through a big snake. A psychoanalyst would certainly most most likely suspect the Wei’s dream reflects a(n):

a. Dental fixation.

b. Reaction formation.

c. Self‑serving bias.

d. Oedipus complex.

e. External locus the control.


Freud said that the process of identification is most directly responsible because that the development of:

a. The Oedipus complex.

b. Free association.

c. The superego.

d. Erogenous zones.

e. An inferiority complex.


Which theory would most most likely predict the boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strong masculine gender identity?

a. Allport’s properties theory

b. Maslow’s humanistic theory

c. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory

d. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory


According come Freud, during the duration between period 6 and also puberty children:

a. Endure intense sex-related feelings for peers that both sexes.

b. Endure very tiny sexual interest.

c. Direct their sexual interests toward their opposite‑sex parent.

d. Room ambivalent around their own sexual identity.


Gene safety a an excellent deal that time bragging about his plenty of sexual exploits. Freud would certainly have said that Gene is fixated in ~ the ________ stage.

a. Genital

b. Oral

c. Latency

d. Phallic

e. Anal


According come Freud, fixation describes a difficulty in the procedure of:

a. Totally free association.

b. Psychosexual development.

c. Projective testing.

d. Reaction formation.

e. Hypnosis.


Jake seeks sexual satisfied by means of solitary masturbation quite than with sexual communication with his wife. Freud would certainly have suggested that this illustrates a(n): a. Rationalization. B. Projection. C. Inferiority complex. D. Reaction formation. E. Fixation.
Freud suggested that orally fixated adult are especially likely come exhibit: a. Passive dependence. B. One inferiority complex. C. An Electra complex. D. Compulsive neatness. E. Messiness and also disorganization.
Alice is terribly gullible and also accepts as true just around anything she is told. Follow to the psychoanalytic perspective, Alice is most most likely fixated at the ________ stage. A. Genital b. Phallic c. Anal d. Oral e. Latency
Mr. Hendriks, a high college teacher, washes the chalkboard and realigns student workdesks in specific rows prior to every class. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Mr. Hendriks is most likely fixated in ~ the ________ stage. A. Phallic b. Oral c. Latency d. Genital e. Anal
According to Freud, defense instrument are provided by the: a. Id come defend versus the accusations and guilt feelings created by the superego. B. Ego to avoid threatening impulses from being consciously recognized. C. Superego to stop expression the sexual and aggressive drives. D. Id, ego, and superego in a recurring sequence of inner conflicts.
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by she uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she observed this uncle however was can not to know why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most most likely to indicate that Inge is making use of the defense mechanism of: a. Repression. B. Reaction formation. C. Rationalization. D. Regression. E. Displacement.
Freud argued that slips the the tongue show an incomplete: a. Fixation. B. Displacement. C. Rationalization. D. Projection. E. Repression.
An too much fixation is most likely to contribute to: a. Reaction formation. B. Regression. C. Projection. D. An Electra complex. E. Displacement.
Four‑year‑old Timmy has actually not wet his bed because that over a year. However, he starts bed‑wetting again soon after his sister is born. Timmy’s actions best illustrates: a. Reaction formation. B. Projection. C. Regression. D. Displacement. E. Repression.
Reaction development refers to the procedure by i beg your pardon people: a. Disguise i can not accept unconscious impulses through attributing them to others. B. Consciously express feelings that are the opposite of i can not accept unconscious impulses. C. Retreat to behavior patterns characteristics of an earlier stage the development. D. Offer self‑justifying explanations in ar of the real however unacceptable unconscious reasons for action.
Parents that disguise hostility toward their kids by ending up being overly safety of them are really likely utilizing the defense device of: a. Projection. B. Regression. C. Rationalization. D. Reaction formation. E. Displacement.
The defense mechanism whereby people disguise threaten impulses through attributing lock to rather is called: a. Projection. B. Displacement. C. Fixation. D. Reaction formation. E. Repression.

Abdul mistakenly believes the his classmates at institution are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the many quarrelsome and aggressive boy in the school. Follow to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul’s belief that his classmates are hostile is a:

a. Regression.

b. Projection.

c. Fixation.

d. Reaction formation.


Mrs. Smith, who is white and also unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, tells she friends that many Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited primarily by Blacks. Follow to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith finest illustrates:

a. Sublimation.

b. Reaction formation.

c. Projection.

d. Displacement.

e. Regression.


The defense system in i beg your pardon self‑justifying explanations change the real, unconscious factors for actions is:

a. Projection.

b. Reaction formation.

c. Repression.

d. Rationalization.

e. Displacement.


Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a far better cook than she. Recently, she refused his market to prepare dinner because, said she, “You could far better spend the time playing with our kids.” Melissa’s comment finest illustrates:

a. Regression.

b. Projection.

c. Rationalization.

d. Displacement.

e. Reaction formation.


While Professor Gomez was going v a painful divorce, he had tendency to develop unnecessarily difficult tests and also gave his college student unusually short grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to check out the professor’s therapy of college student as an instance of:

a. Reaction formation.

b. Rationalization.

c. Displacement.

d. Projection.

e. Regression.


The defense mechanism by which people rechannel their i can not accept impulses right into socially approved tasks is:

a. Displacement.

b. Repression.

c. Reaction formation.

d. Sublimation.

e. Projection.


Freud argued that Leonardo da Vinci’s paintings of Madonnas can be traced ago to his desire because that intimacy v his own mother. According to Freud, da Vinci’s artistry provides an example of:

a. Displacement.

b. Projection.

c. Sublimation.

d. Regression.

e. Reaction formation.


Projective exam are many closely connected with the ________ perspective.

a. Social‑cognitive

b. Psychoanalytic

c. Humanistic

d. Trait


Henry Murray uncovered that children’s perceptions of photographs to be biased by their previous authorized in a horrible game. Their perceptual reactions most clearly highlighted the potential worth of:

a. Projective tests.

b. Cost-free association.

c. Unconditional hopeful regard.

d. Mutual determinism.

e. An inner locus of control.


Mr. Dutoit to be asked by his psychotherapist come look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit to be most likely taking the:

a. TAT.

b. Myers-Briggs kind Indicator.

c. MMPI‑2.

d. An individual Orientation Inventory.

e. Rorschach test.


The major reason because that the unreliability that the Rorschach inkblot test is the fact that:

a. The test inhibits individuals from communicating honestly in clinical interviews.

b. Psychologists frequently do not agree on exactly how to score the results of this test.

c. The check does not discriminate effectively between those who space suicidal and those who space not.

d. The test deserve to be used effectively only with individuals who are severely maladjusted.


Neo‑Freudian personality philosophers were most most likely to disagree through Freud about the prestige of:

a. The unconscious dynamics basic behavior.

b. Childhood sexual instincts.

c. Anxiety and also defense mechanisms.

d. Distinguishing in between id, ego, and also superego.


Sharon to be an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and also squanders any type of money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would certainly have suggested that Sharon sick from:

a. An Electra complex.

b. Function confusion.

c. An dental fixation.

d. Feelings of inferiority.

e. The Barnum effect


Karen Horney, a influential neo‑Freudian, questioned Freud’s presumption that women:

a. Have actually weak superegos.

b. Suffer an Electra complex.

c. Often experience learned helplessness.

d. Have actually stronger sexual instincts 보다 men.

e. Never experience a phallic phase of development.


Which neo‑Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?

a. Jung

b. Adler

c. Horney

d. Maslow

e. Bandura


Contemporary psychodynamic thinkers are most likely to emphasize the prestige of:

a. Sexual instincts.

b. Cost-free association.

c. Motivational conflict.

d. The cumulative unconscious.


Contemporary psychologists are the very least likely come agree with Freud’s belief that:

a. Conscience and also gender identity kind during the procedure of addressing the Oedipus complex.

b. Aware awareness of our own psychological processes is really limited.

c. Memory are often distorted and incomplete.

d. Defense mechanisms help protect individuals from anxiety.


Freud emphasized the emotional heal is associated with the:

a. Continuous of repressed sexual desires.

b. Forecast of repressed fears.

c. Restore of repressed memories.

d. Displacement the repressed hostilities.


Survivors’ storage of Nazi death camp experiences many clearly challenge Freud’s concept of:

a. Fixation.

b. Repression.

c. The Oedipus complex.

d. Motivational conflict.

e. Learned helplessness.


Compared with Freud, contemporary research psychologists are much less likely to think the unconscious psychological dynamics together involving:

a. Parallel processing.

b. Motivational conflict.

c. Implicitly memory.

d. Best hemisphere activity.


People who cheat on their taxes are particularly likely to think numerous others perform as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud’s principle of:

a. Displacement.

b. Reaction formation.

c. Sublimation.

d. Projection.

e. Fixation.


Freud’s concept of personality has actually been criticized due to the fact that it:

a. Underestimates the prominence of organic contributions come personality development.

b. Is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the person capacity for devastating behavior.

c. Is too many reliant upon observations derived from Freud’s use of projective tests.

d. Offers couple of testable predictions that allow one to determine its validity.


Freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective together Allport is to the ________ perspective. A. Behavioral b. Humanity c. Properties d. Society cognitive

Characteristic patterns of behavior and an inspiration are called:

a. Aptitudes.

b. Fixations.

c. Projections.

d. Traits.


Trait philosophers are much more concerned with ________ personality 보다 ________ it.

a. Predicting; assessing

b. Describing; explaining

c. Changing; analyzing

d. Interpreting; observing


Santa Claus is come Superman together ________ is come ________.

a. Endomorph; mesomorph

b. Pleasure principle; reality principle

c. Anal fixation; oral fixation

d. Inner locus the control; exterior locus of manage

e. Regression; projection


The Myers‑Briggs form Indicator classifies people according to personality varieties identified by:

a. Gordon Allport.

b. Carl Jung.

c. Albert Bandura.

d. Carl Rogers.

e. Abraham Maslow.


Factor analysis has been offered to determine the many basic:

a. Self‑serving biases.

b. Defense mechanisms.

c. Personality traits.

d. Psychosexual stages.


Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks’ straightforward personality dimensions she would be classified as:

a. Unstable–introverted.

b. Internal–impulsive.

c. Manic–depressive.

d. External–dependent.

e. Passive–aggressive.


The huge Five trait dimensions were determined by method of:

a. The MMPI.

b. Complimentary association.

c. Projective tests.

d. Factor analysis.

e. Clinical intuition.


A human who is careless and also disorganized most clearly ranks short on the big Five trait measurement known as:

a. Emotional stability.

b. Extraversion.

c. Openness.

d. Agreeableness.

e. Conscientiousness.


Which the the following huge Five trait dimensions is most very closely related come one’s level the creativity?

a. Extraversion

b. Openness

c. Emotionally stability

d. Agreeableness


Morning varieties are to evening species as ________ is to ________.

a. Conscientiousness; extraversion

b. Agreeableness; openness

c. Extraversion; conscientiousness

d. Openness; agreeableness


Research on individual differences in children temperament shows that the characteristics of shyness most clearly results from:

a. A weak superego.

b. Hereditary predispositions.

c. An inner locus the control.

d. Unresolved conflicts.

e. Fixation and also regression.


The tendency to expropriate favorable descriptions of one’s personality that could really be used to almost anyone is known as:

a. The aur effect.

b. The Barnum effect.

c. Projection.

d. Aspect analysis.

e. Unconditional positive regard.


Carol was informed by a expert palm reader: “You generally connect openly through others, yet you have particular dark tricks that even your closest friends can never guess.” The truth that Carol to be impressed through the palm reader’s understanding into she personality finest illustrates:

a. Unconditional confident regard.

b. The Barnum effect.

c. The Electra complex.

d. Reciprocal determinism.

e. Attributional style.


A personality inventory the utilizes only those items that have actually been presented to differentiate certain groups of people is dubbed a(n) ________ test.

a. Factor analytic

b. Multiphasic

c. Aptitude

d. Projective

e. Empirically derived


Which that the complying with tests to be empirically derived?

a. TAT

b. Rorschach Inkblot Test

c. MMPI-2

d. Myers-Briggs kind Indicator


Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the level to i m sorry a client is enduring from depression, delusions, and other symptoms of mental disorder. I m sorry personality inventory would be most advantageous for this purpose?

a. MMPI‑2

b. Rorschach

c. TAT

d. Myers-Briggs form Indicator


Personality inventories generally gather info by way of:

a. Projection.

b. Aspect analysis.

c. Cost-free association.

d. Self‑reports.

e. Arbitrarily selection.


Which theorists have actually been most straight criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from instance to situation?

a. Social‑cognitive

b. Psychoanalytic

c. Humanistic

d. Trait


Hartshorne and also May offered thousands of children avenues to lie, cheat, and also steal while at home, in ~ school, and at play. Outcomes of this research, according to Walter Mischel, must make us more cautious around emphasizing:

a. Personality traits.

b. Self-efficacy.

c. Reciprocal determinism.

d. Defense mechanisms.

e. Unconditional hopeful regard.


Sheen is generally animated and talkative once he is through his girlfriend, yet he is frequently quiet and also reserved at home. He proactively participates in plenty of classroom discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk v friends at the campus coffee shop. Follow to Walter Mischel, Sheen’s actions should lead united state to inquiry the prestige of:

a. Personality traits.

b. Unconditional positive regard.

c. Mutual determinism.

d. Defense mechanisms.

e. Self‑efficacy.


In rejecting insurance claims that personality trait procedures fail to predict actions effectively, Seymour Epstein emphasized the prominence of:

a. Multiple actions assessments.

b. Reciprocal determinism.

c. Element analysis.

d. Projective tests.


People’s scores top top a check of extraversion are most likely to be many strongly associated with the variety of social conversations they initiate throughout the food of a single:

a. Hour.

b. Day.

c. Week.

d. Month.


An individual’s responses come a personality inventory would certainly be most valuable for correctly predicting the person’s actions ________ that involve(s) highly ________ society expectations or roles.

a. In a solitary situation; ambiguous

b. In a solitary situation; unambiguous

c. Throughout a wide range of situations; ambiguous

d. Across a wide selection of situations; unambiguous


The humanistic view emphasizes the prestige of:

a. Cost-free association.

b. Self‑determination.

c. Mutual determinism.

d. Personality inventories.

e. Projective tests.


Abraham Maslow studied the stays of Abraham Lincoln, cutting board Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to recognize the nature of:

a. Reciprocal determinism.

b. Unconditional hopeful regard.

c. Self‑actualization.

d. Personality traits.


Self-actualized people, as explained by Maslow, are least likely to it is in highly:

a. Compassionate.

b. Religious.

c. Conforming.

d. Self-accepting.


Which theorist emphasized that an individual growth is promoted by interactions through others who room genuine, accepting, and also empathic?

a. Allport

b. Jung

c. Rogers

d. Freud

e. Bandura


Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and shot to recognize their children’s feelings and should candid disclose their very own inner feel to your children. Her technique to parent‑child interaction was most explicitly recommended by:

a. Bandura.

b. Allport.

c. Freud.

d. Rogers.

e. Jung.


Carl Rogers argued that the ________ is a central feature the personality.

a. Collective unconscious

b. Oedipus complex

c. Inferiority complex

d. Persona

e. Self‑concept


Carl Rogers would have said that numerous of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are supplied to minimization the viewed discrepancy between:

a. Individualism and collectivism.

b. The cumulative unconscious and also the an individual unconscious.

c. The really self and also the appropriate self.

d. An internal locus of control and an exterior locus of control.


Which psychologists are most most likely to criticize standardized personality tests because that failing to capture the unique subjective endure of the individual personality?

a. Psychoanalytic theorists

b. Characteristics theorists

c. Social-cognitive theorists

d. Humanity theorists


If we are nervous about our an individual appearance after ~ adopting a brand-new hairstyle, us are most likely to ________ the level to i m sorry others notice our nervousness and also we are most likely to ________ the degree to i beg your pardon they notice our new hair style.

a. Overestimate; underestimate

b. Underestimate; overestimate

c. Overestimate; overestimate

d. Underestimate; underestimate


Larry research studies diligently because he is haunted by an image of self being can not to obtain employment after his college graduation. Larry’s diligence finest illustrates the motivational impact of:

a. An interior locus that control.

b. Unconditioned optimistic regard.

c. Learned helplessness.

d. Feasible selves.

e. Sublimation.


Individuals with high self‑esteem are an ext likely than those v low self‑esteem to:

a. Have actually a strong ego.

b. Endure an exterior locus the control.

c. I disbanded flattering explanation of themselves as untrue.

d. Underestimate the accuracy of their very own beliefs.

e. Combine with human being whose attitudes and personality space very comparable to their own.


Self-esteem is negatively associated with:

a. An individual control.

b. Self-serving bias.

c. Depression.

d. Individualism.

e. Extraversion.


A human being whose self‑esteem is momentarily endangered is specifically likely to:

a. Show an freedom from social pressure to conform.

b. Slam the shortcomings that others.

c. Absence a clear feeling of sex identity.

d. Suffer an interior locus of control.

e. Be motivated by a desire because that self‑actualization.


People that are challenged by severe physical disabilities are likely to preserve normal levels of self-esteem by:

a. Displacing your feelings of resentment.

b. Arising an exterior locus the control.

c. Comparing themselves through others that are an in similar way disabled.

d. Accepting much more personal responsibility for their difficulties than for their accomplishments.


In one survey, americans were much more optimistic the they themselves would go to heaven than would certainly either Michael Jordan or bill Clinton. This best illustrates:

a. An internal locus that control.

b. The Barnum effect.

c. An Electra complex.

d. Sublimation.

e. Self-serving bias.


Judy failed she last background midterm. I m sorry of the adhering to conclusions would be most representative the a self‑serving predisposition on Judy’s part?

a. “I yes, really didn’t prepare well sufficient for that test.”

b. “I wasn’t concentrating very hard during the test.”

c. “I lack ability in history.”

d. “I think the test questions were ambiguous and also confusing.”


Athletes often attribute your loses to poor officiating. This ideal illustrates:

a. One Electra complex.

b. Learned helplessness.

c. Repression.

d. Self-serving bias.

e. The Barnum effect.


Research on self‑perception suggests that many people:

a. Suffer extensively from feel of unrealistically low self‑esteem.

b. Feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes.

c. Watch themselves an extremely favorably in to compare to many others.

d. Underestimate the accuracy of your beliefs and also judgments.

e. Room unrealistically cynical about their personal future.


Although Jerry generally cheats on great tests, he justifies his habits by erroneously thinking that many other college student cheat even more than he does. His mistaken id best illustrates:

a. Reciprocal determinism.

b. The Barnum effect.

c. Reaction formation.

d. An outside locus of control.

e. Self‑serving bias.


Which that the adhering to is most most likely to contribute to increasing one’s self-esteem?

a. Complimentary association

b. An Electra complex

c. Self-serving bias

d. An external locus of control

e. The Barnum effect


A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:

a. Society responsibility.

b. Personal control.

c. Self-actualization.

d. Gyeongju diversity.

e. Cost-free association.


Professor Shankar believes the her students’ most important personal characteristics are those that identify them as uniquely different from many other people. Her mindset best illustrates among the consequences of:

a. Individualism.

b. Self‑serving bias.

c. Mutual determinism.

d. Reaction formation.

e. The Barnum effect.


Individualism is most likely to be emphasized in:

a. Africa.

b. Asia.

c. India.

d. North America.


American university students are more likely 보다 Japanese university students to define themselves in regards to their:

a. Academic abilities.

b. College affiliation.

c. Country background.

d. Marital status.

e. Gender.


Japanese students are much more likely than American student to explain themselves in regards to their:

a. Physical appearance.

b. Social identities.

c. Political ideology.

d. Personality traits.


A willingness to move jobs and move native one component of the country to another best illustrates one of the after-effects of:

a. Reciprocal determinism.

b. Collectivism.

c. Complimentary association.

d. Learned helplessness.

e. Individualism.


When Professor Thompson lived abroad for a year, the was very surprised at exactly how much respect he obtained from civilization simply due to the fact that he to be a retired university professor. His feeling of surprise suggests that he had not previously lived in a society that valued:

a. Society diversity.

b. Self-actualization.

c. Mutual determinism.

d. Individualism.

e. Collectivism.


People are somewhat an ext likely to demonstrate self-serving prejudice in a culture that values:

a. Individualism.

b. Collectivism.

c. Mutual determinism.

d. Conformity.

e. Function playing.


Individualism is to collectivism together ________ is to ________.

a. An individual control; learned helplessness

b. Displacement; sublimation

c. Independence; interdependence

d. Responsibility; freedom

e. Pleasure principle; reality principle


The prominence of romance in marital relationship relationships is most likely to it is in emphasized in societies that value:

a. Function playing.

b. Collectivism.

c. Mutual determinism.

d. Individualism.

e. Sex stereotypes.


People living in a culture that promotes individualism are more likely than those in collectivist cultures to experience:

a. Divorce.

b. Loneliness.

c. Homicide.

d. Stress‑related diseases.

e. Any type of of the above.


Religious and ethnic diversity space most likely to be evaluate in a society that values:

a. Cooperation.

b. Individualism.

c. Reciprocal determinism.

d. Collectivism.

e. Nationalism.


Parents in collectivist societies are much more likely 보다 parents in individualist societies to encourage teenage children to:

a. Pick out and also purchase their own clothes.

b. Get involved in household chores.

c. Publicly protest against repressive government policies.

d. Create close friendships with ethnically diverse groups of people.


Humanistic psychologists would certainly most most likely be criticized for underestimating the worth of:

a. An inner locus that control.

b. Self-serving bias.

c. Society influence.

d. The Barnum effect.

e. Individualism.


Maslow most plainly interjected his own an individual values right into his research of self-actualized individuals by:

a. Selectively studying civilization with qualities he admired.

b. Interpreting your flattering self-descriptions together a self-serving bias.

c. Overemphasizing the worth of their commitment to social norms.

d. Assuming the self-actualization typically takes priority over every other person motives.


The mankind perspective has been criticized for fostering an excessive level of:

a. Sexism.

b. Spiritualism.

c. Nationalism.

d. Individualism.

e. Personality testing.


Humanistic theorists have actually been criticize for:

a. Overestimating the influence of childhood experience on adult personality.

b. Underestimate the inconsistency of behavior from one situation to another.

c. Overestimating the level of similarity amongst people.

d. Underestimate the inherent person capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.


The humanistic view is come Maslow as the social‑cognitive view is to:

a. Allport.

b. Rogers.

c. Adler.

d. Bandura.

e. Jung.


According come Bandura, reciprocal determinism requires multidirectional impacts among:

a. Mind, body, and also behavior.

b. Thoughts, emotions, and also actions.

c. Behaviors, internal personal factors, and also environmental events.

d. Id, ego, and also superego.

e. Learned helplessness, locus the control, and also optimism.


Randy’s substandard scholastic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of:

a. Self-serving bias.

b. An internal locus the control.

c. The Barnum effect.

d. Mutual determinism.

e. Reaction formation.


Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them very kindly. His kindness leader them to work diligently top top his behalf, which subsequently increases his to trust in them. This pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and also increasing trust illustrates what is expected by:

a. Reaction formation.

b. The Barnum effect.

c. Displacement.

d. Outside locus the control.

e. Reciprocal determinism.


Because Jill is very extraverted, she commonly goes come parties whereby she is motivated to laugh and also socialize. Due to the fact that Jim is very introverted, he typically spends weekends in the library wherein it’s straightforward to quiet reflect and study. Jill and also Jim best illustrate what is meant by:

a. An outside locus the control.

b. Reciprocal determinism.

c. The self-serving bias.

d. The Barnum effect.

e. Reaction formation.


The perception the one’s fate is figured out by luck reflects:

a. Reciprocal determinism.

b. Self‑serving bias.

c. An exterior locus the control.

d. The satisfied principle.

e. The Barnum effect.


Sasha believes the the questions on university tests space so unrelated come course job-related that examining is useless. Sasha’s belief most clearly illustrates:

a. Reciprocal determinism.

b. Reaction formation.

c. An external locus the control.

d. The Barnum effect.

e. Displacement.


Laura falls short to recognize any kind of connection in between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood the contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Laura’s lack of perceptiveness finest illustrates the threats of:

a. Free association.

b. An Electra complex.

c. The Barnum effect.

d. An external locus of control.

e. Unconditional positive regard.


Dorothy believes the she will certainly be extremely successful in business if she functions hard and carefully manages her time. Her id most clearly illustrates:

a. Reaction formation.

b. Mutual determinism.

c. Unconditional hopeful regard.

d. An Electra complex.

e. An internal locus the control.


Compared to those with an external locus of control, people who perceive an interior locus of control are much more likely to:

a. It is in introverted personalities.

b. Provide others unconditional hopeful regard.

c. Conform to society pressure.

d. Cope successfully with stress.


An individual that perceives an interior locus of control would most likely show signs the a:

a. Weak id.

b. Strong id.

c. Weak ego.

d. Solid ego.

e. Weak superego.


Learned helplessness is most likely to contribute to:

a. The Barnum effect.

b. A self-serving bias.

c. An external locus that control.

d. Unconditional optimistic regard.

e. One Oedipus complex.


Dogs strapped right into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed:

a. A fixation.

b. A reaction formation.

c. Learned helplessness.

d. A greater threshold that pain.

e. Unrealistic optimism.


After experiencing unavoidable brutalities as a sinner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg came to be apathetic, quit eating, and gave increase all efforts to physically endure the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most plainly illustrates:

a. An inferiority complex.

b. Repression.

c. Learned helplessness.

d. An interior locus the control.

e. Reaction formation.


Learned helplessness is most likely to promote:

a. Collectivism.

b. Unconditional hopeful regard.

c. An interior locus the control.

d. The Barnum effect.

e. Pessimism.


The finest indicator the a person’s level of positive outlook is his or her:

a. Individualism.

b. Appropriate self.

c. Sex identity.

d. Attributional style.

e. Unconditional optimistic regard.


Researchers discovered that new life insurance representatives were much less likely come quit during their very first year ~ above the project if they demonstrated the properties of:

a. Agreeableness.

b. Openness.

c. Extraversion.

d. Optimism.


Martin Seligman’s positive psychology differs from humanistic view in that it:

a. Admits to humankind’s volume for evil.

b. Focuses more on a person’s interaction with the environment.

c. Involves the scientific study of optimal human functioning.

d. Has greater application in the education setting.


An unrealistic optimism about future life events could best be defined as a(n):

a. Electra complex.

b. Self-serving bias.

c. Reaction formation.

d. Fixation.

e. Exterior locus of control.


Sexually active undergraduate women perceive themselves as much much less likely to suffer an unwanted pregnancy than various other women at your university. This best illustrates:

a. An Electra complex.

b. Low self-esteem.

c. Displacement.

d. The Barnum effect.

e. Unrealistic optimism.


The social‑cognitive perspective suggests that the best method to guess a political candidate’s performance efficiency after choice is to assess that individual’s:

a. Current feelings of personal control.

b. Particular political objectives for the future.

c. General feelings that optimism about the future.

d. Previous performance in instances involving similar responsibilities.

e. Personality traits together revealed through the MMPI‑2.


The social‑cognitive perspective is least likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of:

a. Ecological influences.

b. Unconscious motives.

c. Personality traits.

d. Hereditary influences.


Personality is finest defined as an individual’s:

a. Characteristic sample of thinking, feeling, and acting.

b. Many noticeable characteristics.

c. Biologically inherited temperament.

d. Surprise thoughts and emotions.


Mark frequently responds to tension in a calm and thoughtful manner. Tom, on the various other hand, generally becomes agitated. The reactions of Mark and also Tom suggest that each has actually a distinctive:

a. Reaction formation.

b. Collective unconscious.

c. Oedipus complex.

d. Self‑serving bias.

e. Personality.


The id that some distressing physical symptoms can not it is in readily explained in terms of neurological impairments contributed most straight to:

a. Allport’s interest in personality traits.

b. Freud’s attention in unconscious conflicts.

c. Maslow’s interest in self‑actualization.

d. Bandura’s attention in an individual control.

e. Rogers’s attention in unconditional hopeful regard.


Prior come his use of totally free association, Freud had urged patients to retrieve their forgotten memories by way of:

a. Hypnosis.

b. Projective tests.

c. Psychosis drugs.

See more: Which Of These Effectors Is Not Directly Controlled By The Autonomic Nervous System?

d. Fixation.


Which the the complying with techniques to be Freud most most likely to use in an attempt to uncover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients’ symptoms?

a. Factor analysis

b. Free association

c. Projective testing

d. Self‑assessment techniques

e. Sublimation


In suggesting that the mental is favor an iceberg, Freud was most plainly emphasizing the prestige of the: