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DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION DEI VERBUMSOLEMNLY PROMULGATEDBY HIS HOLINESSPOPE PAUL VION NOVEMBER 18, 1965

PREFACE

1. Hearing the word of God with reverence and proclaiming it via confidence, the sacred synod takes its direction from these words of St. John: "We announce to you the eternal life which dwelt through the Father and also was made visible to us. What we have actually seen and heard we announce to you, so that you may have actually fellowship with us and our widespread fellowship be with the Father and also His Son Jesus Christ" (1 John 1:2-3). As such, following in the footactions of the Council of Trent and of the First Vatihave the right to Council, this current council wishes to collection forth authentic doctrine on divine revelation and also exactly how it is handed on, so that by hearing the message of salvation the totality people might think, by believing it may hope, and also by hoping it may love. (1)

CHAPTER I

REVELATION ITSELF

2. In His goodness and also wisdom God decided to expose Himself and also to make known to us the hidden purpose of His will (check out Eph. 1:9) through which via Christ, the Word made flesh, male can in the Divine Spirit have accessibility to the Father and involved share in the divine nature (check out Eph. 2:18; 2 Peter 1:4). Thstormy this revelation, therefore, the invisible God (view Col. 1;15, 1 Tim. 1:17) out of the abundance of His love speaks to males as friends (watch Ex. 33:11; John 15:14-15) and stays among them (view Bar. 3:38), so that He might invite and also take them right into fellowship via Himself. This setup of revelation is realized by deeds and also words having an inner unity: the deeds wrought by God in the background of salvation manifest and confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while the words procase the deeds and also clarify the mystery had in them. By this revelation then, the deepest fact about God and also the salvation of guy shines out for our sake in Christ, that is both the mediator and the fullness of all revelation. (2)

3. God, that through the Word creates all things (check out John 1:3) and keeps them in visibility, gives men an enin the time of witness to Himself in produced realities (view Rom. 1:19-20). Planning to make well-known the means of heavenly salvation, He went better and also from the begin manifested Himself to our first paleas. Then after their fall His promise of redemption aroprovided in them the hope of being saved (check out Gen. 3:15) and also from that time on He ceaselessly retained the human race in His care, to offer eternal life to those that perseveringly carry out great searching for salvation (watch Rom. 2:6-7). Then, at the time He had appointed He referred to as Abraham in order to make of him a great nation (view Gen. 12:2). Through the patriarchs, and after them with Moses and the prophets, He taught this civilization to acknowledge Himself the one living and also true God, provident father and just judge, and to wait for the Savior promised by Him, and also in this manner prepared the method for the Gospel down via the centuries.

You are watching: Emphasis on reason over revelation is called

4. Then, after speaking in many and also differed methods via the prophets, "now at last in these days God has spoken to us in His Son" (Heb. 1:1-2). For He sent out His Son, the eternal Word, that enlightens all guys, so that He could dwell among guys and also tell them of the innermany being of God (watch John 1:1-18). Jesus Christ, therefore, the Word made flesh, was sent as "a man to males." (3) He "speaks the words of God" (John 3;34), and completes the job-related of salvation which His Father gave Him to do (view John 5:36; John 17:4). To see Jesus is to see His Father (John 14:9). For this factor Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through his entirety work of making Himself current and also manifesting Himself: via His words and deeds, His signs and wonders, but especially via His fatality and glorious resurrection from the dead and also last sfinishing of the Spirit of reality. Furthermore He shown with divine testimony what revelation prodeclared, that God is via us to cost-free us from the darkness of sin and death, and also to raise us approximately life eternal.

The Christian dispensation, therefore, as the brand-new and also definitive covenant, will never before pass away and we now await no better new public revelation before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ (watch 1 Tim. 6:14 and Tit. 2:13).

5. "The obedience of faith" (Rom. 16:26; check out 1:5; 2 Cor 10:5-6) "is to be offered to God who reveals, an obedience by which male commits his totality self freely to God, offering the full entry of intellect and also will to God who reveals," (4) and easily assenting to the truth revealed by Him. To make this act of confidence, the grace of God and the internal aid of the Holy Spirit must precede and also help, moving the heart and also turning it to God, opening the eyes of the mind and giving "joy and also ease to everyone in assenting to the truth and believing it." (5) To bring around an ever deeper expertise of revelation the same Divine Spirit constantly brings confidence to completion by His presents.

6. Through divine revelation, God decided to display forth and also communicate Himself and also the eternal decisions of His will certainly regarding the salvation of guys. That is to say, He decided to share via them those divine treasures which totally transcend the expertise of the human mind. (6)

As a sacred synod has actually affirmed, God, the start and finish of all points, have the right to be recognized via certainty from developed reality by the light of huguy reason (view Rom. 1:20); but teaches that it is with His revelation that those spiritual truths which are by their nature obtainable to humale factor deserve to be known by all men via ease, through solid certitude and via no trace of error, also in this existing state of the human race. (7)

CHAPTER II

HANDING ON DIVINE REVELATION

7. In His gracious goodness, God has actually checked out to it that what He had actually revealed for the salvation of all countries would certainly abide perpetually in its complete integrity and be handed on to all generations. Therefore Christ the Lord in whom the complete revelation of the supreme God is brought to completion (see 2 Cor. 1:20; 3:13; 4:6), commissioned the Apostles to preach to all guys that Gospel which is the resource of all conserving reality and moral teaching, (1) and to impart to them heavenly presents. This Gospel had actually been promised in former times through the prophets, and also Christ Himself had actually fulfilled it and also promulgated it with His lips. This commission was faithcompletely fulfilled by the Apostles who, by their oral preaching, by example, and by observances handed on what they had actually obtained from the lips of Christ, from living through Him, and also from what He did, or what they had actually learned via the prompting of the Divine Spirit. The commission was fulfilled, too, by those Apostles and also apostolic men who under the inspiration of the very same Divine Spirit committed the message of salvation to composing. (2)

But in order to keep the Gospel forever totality and also alive within the Church, the Apostles left bishops as their followers, "handing over" to them "the authority to teach in their very own place."(3) This sacred heritage, therefore, and Sacred Scripture of both the Old and New Testaments are favor a mirror in which the pilgrim Church on earth looks at God, from whom she has obtained everything, till she is carried lastly to watch Him as He is, challenge to confront (see 1 John 3:2).

8. And so the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a unique means in the motivated publications, was to be kept by an unending succession of preachers till the finish of time. Thus the Apostles, handing on what they themselves had actually obtained, warn the faithful to host fast to the legacies which they have actually learned either by word of mouth or by letter (view 2 Thess. 2:15), and to fight in defense of the confidence handed on when and for all (check out Jude 1:3) (4) Now what was handed on by the Apostles includes whatever which contributes towards the holiness of life and also boost in belief of the peoples of God; and also so the Church, in her teaching, life and worship, perpetuates and hands on to all generations all that she herself is, all that she believes.

This legacy which originates from the Apostles build in the Church via the help of the Holy Spirit. (5) For tbelow is a development in the knowledge of the realities and the words which have actually been handed dvery own. This happens via the contemplation and also study made by believers, who treasure these things in their hearts (watch Luke, 2:19, 51) via a penetrating understanding of the spiroutine realities which they suffer, and through the pgetting to of those who have actually received via Episcopal succession the certain gift of reality. For as the centuries succeed one one more, the Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness of divine truth until the words of God reach their finish fulfillment in her.

The words of the holy fathers witness to the existence of this living heritage, whose riches is poured into the exercise and also life of the believing and praying Church. Through the very same tradition the Church"s full canon of the spiritual publications is known, and the spiritual writings themselves are even more profoundly taken and unceasingly made active in her; and for this reason God, that spoke of old, uninterruptedly converses with the bride of His beloved Son; and the Holy Spirit, with whom the living voice of the Gospel resounds in the Church, and also with her, in the civilization, leads unto all truth those that believe and provides the word of Christ dwell abundantly in them (check out Col. 3:16).

9. Hence there exists a close connection and interaction between spiritual tradition and Sacred Scripture. For both of them, flowing from the same divine wellspring, in a details way merge into a unity and also tend toward the exact same finish. For Sacred Scripture is the word of God inasmuch as it is consigned to creating under the motivation of the magnificent Spirit, while spiritual tradition takes the word of God entrusted by Christ the Lord and also the Holy Spirit to the Apostles, and also hands it on to their followers in its complete purity, so that led by the light of the Spirit of reality, they might in proclaiming it keep this word of God faithtotally, define it, and make it even more widely recognized. Consequently it is not from Sacred Scripture alone that the Church draws her certainty about everything which has been revealed. Thus both sacred heritage and also Sacred Scripture are to be accepted and venerated via the very same sense of loyalty and reverence.(6)

10. Sacred heritage and also Sacred Scripture create one spiritual deposit of the word of God, committed to the Church. Holding rapid to this deposit the whole holy people united through their shepherds remain constantly steadfast in the teaching of the Apostles, in the prevalent life, in the breaking of the breview and also in prayers (view Acts 2, 42, Greek text), so that holding to, practicing and also professing the heritage of the confidence, it becomes on the component of the bishops and also faithful a solitary common initiative. (7)

But the task of authentically interpreting the word of God, whether written or handed on, (8) has actually been entrusted specifically to the living teaching office of the Church, (9) whose authority is worked out in the name of Jesus Christ. This teaching office is not over the word of God, but serves it, teaching just what has actually been handed on, listening to it devoutly, guarding it scrupulously and explaining it faithcompletely in accord with a divine commission and also via the aid of the Holy Spirit, it draws from this one deposit of faith every little thing which it presents for idea as divinely revealed.

It is clear, therefore, that sacred tradition, Sacred Scripture and the teaching authority of the Church, in accord via God"s many wise style, are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand without the others, and also that all together and each in its very own means under the action of the one Divine Spirit contribute effectively to the salvation of souls.

CHAPTER III

SACRED SCRIPTURE, ITS INSPIRATION AND DIVINE INTERPRETATION

11. Those divinely revealed realities which are consisted of and presented in Sacred Scripture have actually been committed to creating under the catalyst of the Holy Spirit. For holy mom Church, relying on the belief of the Apostles (view John 20:31; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:19-20, 3:15-16), holds that the books of both the Old and also New Testaments in their entirety, with all their components, are spiritual and also canonical because written under the catalyst of the Divine Spirit, they have God as their author and also have been handed on as such to the Church herself.(1) In composing the sacred books, God chose males and while employed by Him (2) they made usage of their powers and also abilities, so that with Him acting in them and with them, (3) they, as true authors, consigned to writing everything and also just those points which He wanted. (4)

Therefore, since every little thing asserted by the influenced authors or spiritual writers need to be hosted to be asserted by the Divine Spirit, it adheres to that the books of Scripture have to be recognized as teaching solidly, faithfully and also without error that fact which God wanted put into spiritual writings (5) for the sake of salvation. Therefore "all Scripture is divinely inspired and also has its usage for teaching the fact and refuting error, for reformation of manners and also self-control in right living, so that the guy who belongs to God may be efficient and equipped for great work-related of every kind" (2 Tim. 3:16-17, Greek text).

12. However, given that God speaks in Sacred Scripture via guys in human fashion, (6) the interpreter of Sacred Scripture, in order to view plainly what God wanted to connect to us, have to closely investigate what definition the spiritual authors really intfinished, and also what God wanted to manifest by indicates of their words.

To search out the intention of the sacred writers, attention have to be given, among other things, to "literary creates." For reality is set forth and expressed differently in messages which are otherwise historic, prophetic, poetic, or of various other develops of discourse. The interpreter have to investigate what meaning the sacred writer intended to express and actually expressed in certain scenarios by using contemporary literary forms in accordance via the case of his very own time and society. (7) For the correct expertise of what the spiritual writer wanted to assert, due attention must be paid to the customary and also characteristic formats of feeling, speaking and also narrating which prevailed at the time of the sacred writer, and also to the fads men normally employed at that duration in their everyday dealings through one an additional. (8)

But, since Divine Scripture should be read and also construed in the spiritual heart in which it was written, (9) no much less significant attention must be provided to the content and unity of the entirety of Scripture if the interpretation of the spiritual texts is to be effectively operated out. The living legacy of the whole Church must be taken right into account together with the harmony which exists between facets of the faith. It is the job of exegetes to work-related according to these rules toward a better knowledge and also explanation of the interpretation of Sacred Scripture, so that via preparatory research the judgment of the Church may mature. For every one of what has been said around the means of interpreting Scripture is subject ultimately to the judgment of the Church, which carries out the divine commission and also minisattempt of guarding and interpreting the word of God. (10)

13. In Sacred Scripture, therefore, while the fact and also holiness of God constantly continues to be intact, the marvelous "condescension" of eternal wisdom is clearly presented, "that we might learn the gentle kindness of God, which words cannot expush, and how much He has actually gone in adapting His language with thoughtful issue for our weak huguy nature." (11) For the words of God, expressed in human language, have actually been made favor human discourse, simply as the word of the eternal Father, once He took to Himself the flesh of humale weakness, was in eincredibly means made favor men.

CHAPTER IV

THE OLD TESTAMENT

14. In closely planning and also preparing the salvation of the totality human race the God of limitless love, by a one-of-a-kind dispensation, determined for Himself a human being to whom He would entrust His guarantees. First He gotten in into a covenant via Abraham (watch Gen. 15:18) and, with Moses, with the world of Israel (view Ex. 24:8). To this people which He had actually got for Himself, He so shown up Himself with words and also deeds as the one true and also living God that Israel pertained to understand by endure the means of God via males. Then as well, as soon as God Himself spoke to them via the mouth of the prophets, Israel daily got a deeper and clearer expertise of His methods and made them even more widely known among the nations (see Ps. 21:29; 95:1-3; Is. 2:1-5; Jer. 3:17). The plan of salvation foretold by the spiritual authors, recounted and also explained by them, is uncovered as the true word of God in the publications of the Old Testament: these publications, therefore, created under magnificent incentive, reprimary permanently helpful. "For all that was written for our instruction, so that by steadfastness and the encouragement of the Scriptures we can have hope" (Rom. 15:4).

15. The principal purpose to which the setup of the old covenant was directed wregarding prepare for the coming of Christ, the redeemer of all and of the messianic kingdom, to announce this coming by prophecy (watch Luke 24:44; John 5:39; 1 Peter 1:10), and to show its definition via various kinds (see 1 Cor. 10:12). Now the books of the Old Testimony, in accordance through the state of mantype prior to the moment of salvation establimelted by Christ, reveal to all guys the expertise of God and also of man and the ways in which God, just and merciful, deals with guys. These publications, though they additionally contain some things which are infinish and short-term, neverthemuch less show us true magnificent pedagogy. (1) These very same books, then, provide expression to a lively feeling of God, contain a keep of sublime teachings around God, sound wisdom around huguy life, and also a wonderful treasury of prayers, and also in them the mystery of our salvation is current in a surprise method. Christians should receive them with reverence.

16. God, the inspirer and also author of both Testaments, wisely arranged that the New Testament be surprise in the Old and the Old be made manifest in the New. (2) For, though Christ established the brand-new covenant in His blood (watch Luke 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25), still the books of the Old Testimony via all their components, recorded up right into the proclamation of the Gospel, (3) acquire and also present forth their complete meaning in the New Testament (check out Matt. 5:17; Luke 24:27; Rom. 16:25-26; 2 Cor. 14:16) and also consequently burned light on it and also define it.

CHAPTER V

THE NEW TESTAMENT

17. The word of God, which is the power of God for the salvation of all who think (see Rom. 1:16), is collection forth and mirrors its power in a the majority of terrific means in the works of the New Testimony. For when the fullness of time arrived (see Gal. 4:4), the Word was made flesh and also dwelt among us in His fullness of graces and fact (check out John 1:14). Christ establimelted the kingdom of God on earth, materialized His Father and also Himself by deeds and also words, and also completed His work by His fatality, resurrection and also glorious Ascension and by the sending of the Holy Spirit. Having been lifted up from the earth, He draws all males to Himself (check out John 12:32, Greek text), He that alone has actually the words of eternal life (watch John 6:68). This mystery had actually not been shown up to various other generations as it was currently reveacaused His holy Apostles and also prophets in the Divine Spirit (watch Eph. 3:4-6, Greek text), so that they could preach the Gospel, stir up belief in Jesus, Christ and also Lord, and also gather together the Church. Now the works of the New Testament stand also as a perpetual and also divine witness to these realities.

18. It is widespread knowledge that among all the Scriptures, even those of the New Testimony, the Gospels have a one-of-a-kind preeminence, and rightly so, for they are the principal witness for the life and teaching of the incarnate Word, our savior.

The Church has actually always and also everywhere organized and continues to organize that the 4 Gospels are of apostolic beginning. For what the Apostles taught in fulfillment of the commission of Christ, afterwards they themselves and apostolic guys, under the motivation of the magnificent Spirit, handed on to us in writing: the foundation of confidence, namely, the fourfold Gospel, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and also John.(1)

19. Holy Mvarious other Church has actually firmly and also through absolute constancy held, and continues to host, that the 4 Gospels simply named, whose historical character the Church unhesitatingly asserts, faithfully hand also on what Jesus Christ, while living among men, really did and taught for their eternal salvation till the day He was taken up into heaven (see Acts 1:1). Certainly, after the Ascension of the Lord the Apostles handed on to their hearers what He had actually said and also done. This they did through that clearer understanding which they appreciated (3) after they had been instructed by the glorious occasions of Christ"s life and also taught by the light of the Spirit of reality. (2) The spiritual authors composed the four Gospels, picking some things from the many type of which had actually been handed on by word of mouth or in creating, reducing some of them to a synthesis, explaining some points in watch of the instance of their churches and maintaining the form of proclamation but constantly in such fashion that they told us the honest truth around Jesus.(4) For their intention in composing was that either from their very own memory and recollections, or from the witness of those who "themselves from the beginning were eyewitnesses and also ministers of the Word" we might recognize "the truth" concerning those matters about which we have actually been instructed (check out Luke 1:2-4).

20. Besides the 4 Gospels, the canon of the New Testament additionally consists of the epistles of St. Paul and also various other apostolic works, written under the motivation of the Holy Spirit, through which, according to the wise plan of God, those matters which problem Christ the Lord are confirmed, His true teaching is more and more completely proclaimed, the saving power of the magnificent work of Christ is preached, the story is told of the starts of the Church and its marvelous growth, and its glorious fulfillment is foretold.

For the Lord Jesus was through His apostles as He had actually promised (watch Matt. 28:20) and also sent them the advocate Spirit who would certainly lead them right into the fullness of truth (view John 16:13).

CHAPTER VI

SACRED SCRIPTURE IN THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH

21. The Church has always venerated the magnificent Scriptures simply as she veneprices the body of the Lord, given that, particularly in the sacred liturgy, she unceasingly receives and also provides to the faithful the breview of life from the table both of God"s word and also of Christ"s body. She has constantly maintained them, and also proceeds to perform so, in addition to sacred heritage, as the supreme preeminence of faith, given that, as inspired by God and also committed when and for all to writing, they imcomponent the word of God Himself without adjust, and also make the voice of the Holy Spirit resound in the words of the prophets and Apostles. Therefore, favor the Christian religion itself, all the preaching of the Church should be nourimelted and also regulated by Sacred Scripture. For in the sacred publications, the Father who is in heaven meets His children with great love and speaks with them; and the force and power in the word of God is so great that it stands as the assistance and also power of the Church, the stamina of faith for her sons, the food of the heart, the pure and everlasting resource of spiritual life. Consequently these words are perfectly applicable to Sacred Scripture: "For the word of God is living and also active" (Heb. 4:12) and also "it has power to develop you up and provide you your heritage among all those who are sanctified" (Acts 20:32; watch 1 Thess. 2:13).

22. Easy accessibility to Sacred Scripture have to be gave for all the Christian faithful. That is why the Church from the exceptionally beginning embraced as her own that incredibly primitive Greek translation of the Old Testament which is called the septuagint; and she has actually constantly given a location of honor to other Eastern translations and Latin ones specifically the Latin translation recognized as the vulgate. But since the word of God need to be available at all times, the Church by her authority and via maternal issue sees to it that suitable and correct translations are made right into various languages, particularly from the original texts of the sacred publications. And must the chance aclimb and the Church authorities give, if these translations are produced in collaboration via the separated brethren as well, all Christians will have the ability to use them.

23. The bride of the incarnate Word, the Church taught by the Divine Spirit, is involved to move ahead toward a deeper understanding of the Sacred Scriptures so that she might increasingly feed her sons with the divine words. As such, she likewise motivates the examine of the holy Fathers of both East and West and also of sacred liturgies. Catholic exegetes then and other students of sacred theology, functioning diligently together and utilizing appropriate suggests, should devote their energies, under the watchful care of the spiritual teaching office of the Church, to an exploration and also exposition of the divine writings. This have to be so done that as many kind of ministers of the magnificent word as possible will be able successfully to administer the nourishment of the Scriptures for the world of God, to enlighten their minds, strengthen their wills, and also set men"s hearts on fire with the love of God. (1) The sacred synod encourages the sons of the Church and also Biblical scholars to continue energetically, adhering to the mind of the Church, via the occupational they have so well started, through a constant rejuvenation of vigor. (2)

24. Sacred theology rests on the composed word of God, along with spiritual tradition, as its primary and perpetual structure. By scrutinizing in the light of confidence all truth stored up in the mystery of Christ, theology is the majority of powertotally strengthened and constantly rejuvenated by that word. For the Sacred Scriptures contain the word of God and also because they are inspired, really are the word of God; and also so the research of the spiritual page is, as it were, the soul of sacred theology. (3) By the same word of Scripture the ministry of the word also, that is, pastoral pgetting to, catechetics and also all Christian instruction, in which the liturgical homily should organize the forea lot of location, is nourished in a healthy method and flourishes in a holy method.

25. Therefore, all the clergy need to organize rapid to the Sacred Scriptures with diligent sacred reading and cautious research, especially the priests of Christ and others, such as deacons and also catechists that are legitimately energetic in the ministry of the word. This is to be done so that none of them will certainly end up being "an empty preacher of the word of God outwardly, who is not a listener to it inwardly" (4) considering that they should share the plentiful riches of the magnificent word through the faithful committed to them, particularly in the sacred liturgy. The spiritual synod likewise earnestly and particularly urges all the Christian faithful, especially Religious, to learn by constant analysis of the divine Scriptures the "fantastic knowledge of Jesus Christ" (Phil. 3:8). "For ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ."(5) Thus, they need to gladly put themselves in touch via the spiritual text itself, whether it be via the liturgy, well-off in the magnificent word, or via devotional reading, or through instructions suitable for the objective and other aids which, in our time, with approval and active assistance of the shepherds of the Church, are commendably spread everywhere. And let them remember that prayer need to acagency the reading of Sacred Scripture, so that God and guy may talk together; for "we speak to Him as soon as we pray; we hear Him when we review the magnificent saying." (6)

It devolves on spiritual bishops "that have the apostolic teaching"(7) to provide the faithful entrusted to them suitable instruction in the right use of the magnificent books, especially the New Testimony and also over all the Gospels. This deserve to be done via translations of the sacred texts, which are to be offered with the vital and also really sufficient explanations so that the children of the Church may safely and profitably come to be conversant with the Sacred Scriptures and be penetrated via their soul.

Furthermore, editions of the Sacred Scriptures, provided through suitable footnotes, must be ready also for the usage of non-Christians and adjusted to their instance. Both pastors of souls and also Christians mostly need to see to the wise distribution of these in one way or an additional.

26. In this means, therefore, with the analysis and study of the spiritual publications "the word of God may spreview promptly and be glorified" (2 Thess. 3:1) and also the treacertain of revelation, entrusted to the Church, might even more and also more fill the hearts of men. Just as the life of the Church is strengthened via more frequent celebration of the Eucharistic mystery, similar we might hope for a new stimulus for the life of the Spirit from a prospering reverence for the word of God, which "lasts forever" (Is. 40:8; check out 1 Peter 1:23-25).

NOTES

Preface

Post 1:

1. cf. St. Augustine, "De Catechizandis Rudibus," C.IV 8: PL. 40, 316.

Chapter I

Article 2:

2. cf. Matt. 11:27; John 1:14 and also 17; 14:6; 17:1-3; 2 Cor 3:16 and also 4, 6; Eph. 1, 3-14.

Blog post 4:

3. Epistle to Diognetus, c. VII, 4: Funk, Apostolic Fathers, I, p. 403.

Post 5:

4. First Vatideserve to Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 3, "On Faith:" Denzinger 1789 (3008).

5. Second Council of Orange, Canon 7: Denzinger 180 (377); First Vatihave the right to Council, loc. cit.: Denzinger 1791 (3010).

Article 6:

6. First Vatihave the right to Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 2, "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1786 (3005).

7. Ibid: Denzinger 1785 and also 1786 (3004 and also 3005).

Chapter II

Article 7:

1. cf. Matt. 28:19-20, and also Mark 16:15; Council of Trent, session IV, Decree on Scriptural Canons: Denzinger 783 (1501).

2. cf. Council of Trent, loc. cit.; First bromheads.tv Council, session III, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 2, "On revelation:" Denzinger 1787 (3005).

3. St. Irenaeus, "Against Heretics" III, 3, 1: PG 7, 848; Harvey, 2, p. 9.

Article 8:

4. cf. Second Council of Nicea: Denzinger 303 (602); 4th Council of Constance, session X, Canon 1: Denzinger 336 (650-652).

5. cf. First Vatihave the right to Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 4, "On Faith and also Reason:" Denzinger 1800 (3020).

Post 9:

6. cf. Council of Trent, session IV, loc. cit.: Denzinger 783 (1501).

Blog post 10:

7. cf. Pius XII, apostolic constitution, "Munificentissimus Deus," Nov. 1, 1950: A.A.S. 42 (1950) p. 756; Collected Writings of St. Cyprian, Letter 66, 8: Hartel, III, B, p. 733: "The Church people united through the priest and also the pastor in addition to his flock."

8. cf. First Vatideserve to Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 3 "On Faith:" Denzinger 1792 (3011).

9. cf. Pius XII, encyclical "Humani Generis," Aug. 12, 1950: A.A.S. 42 (1950) pp. 568-69: Denzinger 2314 (3886).

Chapter III

Article 11:

1. cf. First Vatideserve to Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 2 "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1787 (3006); Biblical Commission, Decree of June 18,1915: Denzinger 2180 (3629): EB 420; Divine Office, Epistle of Dec. 22, 1923: EB 499.

2. cf. Pius XII, encyclical "Divino Afflante Spiritu," Sept. 30, 1943: A.A.S. 35 (1943) p. 314; Enchiridion Holy bible. (EB) 556.

3. "In" and "for" man: cf. Heb. 1, and 4, 7; ("in"): 2 Sm. 23,2; Matt.1:22 and assorted places; ("for"): First bromheads.tv Council, Schema on Catholic Doctrine, note 9: Coll. Lac. VII, 522.

4. Leo XIII, encyclical "Providentissimus Deus," Nov. 18, 1893: Denzinger 1952 (3293); EB 125.

5. cf. St. Augustine, "Gen. ad Litt." 2, 9, 20:PL 34, 270-271; Epistle 82, 3: PL 33, 277: CSEL 34, 2, p. 354. St. Thomas, "On Truth," Q. 12, A. 2, C.Council of Trent, session IV, Scriptural Canons: Denzinger 783 (1501). Leo XIII, encyclical "Providentissimus Deus:" EB 121, 124, 126-127. Pius XII, encyclical "Divino Afflante Spiritu:" EB 539.

Message 12:

6. St. Augustine, "City of God," XVII, 6, 2: PL 41, 537: CSEL. XL, 2, 228.

7. St. Augustine, "On Christian Doctrine" III, 18, 26; PL 34, 75-76.

8. Pius XII, loc. cit. Denziger 2294 (3829-3830); EB 557-562.

9. cf. Benedict XV, encyclical "Spiritus Paraclitus" Sept. 15, 1920:EB 469. St. Jerome, "In Galatians" 5, 19-20: PL 26, 417 A.

10. cf. First bromheads.tv Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chapter 2, "On Revelation:" Denziger 1788 (3007).

Article 13:

11. St. John Chrysostom "In Genesis" 3, 8 (Homily l7, 1): PG 53, 134; "Attemperatio" in Greek "synkatabasis."

Chapter IV

Blog post 15:

1. Pius XI, encyclical "Mit Brennender Sorge," March 14, 1937: A.A.S. 29 (1937) p. 51.

Article 16:

2. St. Augustine, "Quest. in Hept." 2,73: PL 34,623.

3. St. Irenaeus, "Against Heretics" III, 21,3: PG 7,950; (Same as 25,1: Harvey 2, p. 115). St. Cyril of Jerusalem, "Catech." 4,35; PG 33,497. Theodore of Mopsuestia, "In Soph." 1,4-6: PG 66, 452D-453A.

Chapter V

Post 18:

1. cf. St. Irenaeus, "Against Heretics" III, 11; 8: PG 7,885, Sagnard Edition, p. 194.

Article 19:

(Due to the necessities of translation, footnote 2 adheres to footnote 3 in message of Article 19.)

2. cf. John 14:26; 16:13.

3. John 2:22; 12:16; cf. 14:26; 16:12-13; 7:39.

4. cf. instruction "Holy Mvarious other Church" edited by Pontifical Consilium for Promotion of Bible Studies; A.A.S. 56 (1964) p. 715.

Chapter VI

Post 23:

1. cf. Pius XII, encyclical "Divino Afflante Spiritu:" EB 551, 553, 567. Pontifical Biblical Commission, Instruction on Suitable Teaching of Sacred Scripture in Seminaries and also Religious Colleges, May 13, 1950: A.A.S. 42 (1950) pp. 495-505.

2. cf. Pius XII, ibid: EB 569.

Post 24:

3. cf. Leo XIII, encyclical "Providentissmus Deus:" EB 114; Benedict XV, encyclical "Spiritus Paraclitus:" EB 483.

Message 25:

4. St. Augustine Sermons, 179,1: PL 38,966.

5. St. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah, Prol.: PL 24,17. cf. Benedict XV, encyclical "Spiritus Paraclitus:" EB 475-480; Pius XII, encyclical "Divino Afflante Spiritu:" EB 544.

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6. St. Ambclimbed, On the Duties of Ministers I, 20,88: PL l6,50.

7. St. Irenaeus, "Against Heretics" IV, 32,1: PG 7, 1071; (Same as 49,2) Harvey, 2, p. 255.