oThe essential reaction involves the change of one functional group to another functional team in substrates, utilizing a wide variety of reagents at certain conditions.

oAlkynes are unsaturated compounds that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds which will undergo

enhancement reactions.

oAlkenes space unsaturated compounds the contain carbon-carbon twin bonds which will undergo electrophilic addition reactions. In electrophilic addition reactions, the weaker pi bonding electrons strike an electrophile, forming a carbocation intermediate, and also then a nucleophile strikes the carbocation to type the enhancement product.


reaction is a nucleophilic substitution reaction whereby the price of the reaction counts on the 2 substrates; that is, a nucleophile and an alkyl halide. In this reaction, the nucleophile replace instead instead the halide ion in the substrate.

You are watching: Draw the structures of organic compounds a and b. indicate stereochemistry where applicable.


• Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as alkenes and also alkynes undergo hydrogenation reactions on reaction through

in the presence of a metal catalyst
and result in the formation of brand-new

• The stereochemistry that hydrogen enhancement on one alkyne counts on the i) Nature of steels used ii) Reaction problems (reagents, concentration and also temperature).

• A

reaction mainly depends ~ above the leaving group capacity of the nucleophiles; that is, a halide ion have to be a far better leaving group than an just arrived nucleophile.

• The product developed in a

reaction is an inversion in ~ the stereo facility to the substrate due to the fact that the just arrived nucleophile assaults from the backside that the leave group.

reaction rates depend ~ above both the reactant as well as the product.

• The hydration that alkenes to kind alcohols is done v the aid of an acid (most commonly, sulfuric acid), a catalyst (most likely, mercury salt), and water together a solvent.

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• Lindlar’s catalyst is used to reduce the carbon-carbon triple bonds the exist in the alkynes giving the alkenes.