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download full document at http://testbankcafe.comChapter 2 Data Models conversation Focus Although every one of the topics extended in this chapter space important, our students have given us continuous feedback: If you have the right to write an exact business rules from a summary of operations, database style is no that difficult. Therefore, when data modeling (Sections 2.1, "Data Modeling and Data Models", section 2.2 "The prominence of Data Models,” and 2.3, “Data Model straightforward Building Blocks,”) has actually been examined in detail, ar 2.4, “Business Rules,” must receive a lot of class time and attention. Possibly it is helpful to argue the the answer to inquiries 2 and also 3 in the Review questions section are the an essential to successful design. That’s why we have found it specifically important to emphasis on service rules and their affect on the database style process. What are business rules, what is your source, and why are they crucial? business rules are precisely written and unambiguous statements that are acquired from a detailed description of an organization"s operations. When written properly, business rules specify one or much more of the complying with modeling components:  reality  relationship  qualities  connectivities  cardinalities – these will be check in detail in chapter 3, “The Relational Database Model.” Basically, the cardinalities productivity the minimum and also maximum number of entity cases in an entity. For example, the connection decribed by “a professor teaches one or more classes” method that the PROFESSOR entity is referenced at least once and also no an ext than 4 times in the course entity.  constraints due to the fact that the business rules type the basis of the data modeling process, their an exact statement is vital to the success of the database design. And, due to the fact that the company rules are acquired from a specific description the operations, lot of the design"s success counts on the accuracy that the summary of operations. Examples of organization rules are:  an invoice has one or an ext invoice lines.  every invoice line is associated with a single invoice.  A store employs countless employees.  each employee is employed by only one store.  A college has numerous departments.  every department belongs come a single college. (This organization rule mirrors a university that hasdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com      multiple colleges such together Business, for free Arts, Education, Engineering, etc.) A driver may be assigned come drive numerous different vehicles. Each car can be moved by numerous drivers. (Note: store in mind that this company rule reflects the assignment of drivers during some period of time.) A customer may sign many contracts. Each contract is signed by only one client. A sales representative may write numerous contracts. Every contract is composed by one sales representative.Note that each relationship an interpretation requires the definition of two business rules. For example, the relationship in between the INVOICE and also (invoice) heat entities is defined by the an initial two company rules in the bulleted list. This two-way requirement exists because there is constantly a two-way connection between any two related entities. (This two-way partnership description also reflects the implementation by numerous of the accessible database design tools.) store in mind that the ER diagrams cannot always reflect all of the business rules. Because that example, research the following company rule: A customer cannot be given a credit transaction line over $10,000 uneven that customer has actually maintained a satisfactory credit history (as established by the credit manager) during the past two years. This business rule describes a constraint that cannot be presented in the ER diagram. The business rule reflect in this constraint would certainly be tackled at the applications software level v the use of a cause or a save procedure. (Your students will learn around triggers and also stored steps in chapter 8, “Advanced SQL.”) provided their importance to effective design, we cannot overstate the prestige of service rules and their source from correctly written description of operations. It is not too early to start asking students to write service rules for an easy descriptions of operations. Start by using acquainted operational scenarios, such together buying a book at the publication store, registering because that a class, paying a parking ticket, or renting a DVD. Also, try reversing the process: provide the students a opportunity to write the service rules native a an easy data model such as the one represented by the text’s number 2.1 and 2.2. Ask your students to write the company rules that space the foundation of the relational diagram in number 2.2 and then suggest their fist to the relational tables in figure 2.1 to show that one AGENT incident can occur multiple times in the client entity, thus portraying the implementation affect of the organization rules an agent deserve to serve numerous customers. Every customer is served by one agent.download full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.com Answers come Review questions 1. Discuss the prominence of data modeling. A data version is a reasonably simple representation, commonly graphical, the a more complex real world object event. The data model’s main role is to aid us recognize the complexities of the realworld environment. The database designer supplies data models to facilitate the interaction among designers, applications programmers, and end users. In short, a an excellent data model is a communications device that helps get rid of (or at least substantially reduce) discrepancies between the database design’s components and also the real civilization data environment. The development of data models, bolstered by powerful database design tools, has actually made it possible to considerably diminish the database design error potential. (Review section 2.1 in detail.) 2. What is a service rule, and also what is its purpose in data modeling? A company rule is a brief, precise, and also unambigous description of a policy, procedure, or principle within a certain organization’s environment. In a sense, business rules room misnamed: they apply to any organization -- a business, a government unit, a spiritual group, or a research study laboratory; huge or little -- the stores and also uses data to create information. Organization rules are derived from a description of operations. As its surname implies, a description of work is a detailed narrative that describes the operational environment of one organization. Together a description requires an excellent precision and detail. If the description of operations is untrue or inomplete, the organization rules acquired from it will not reflect the real people data environment accurately, hence leading to poorly identified data models, which command to negative database designs. In turn, poor database designs command to bad applications, thus setting the stage for poor decision do – i beg your pardon may ultimately lead come the death of the organization. Note specifically that business rules assist to create and also enforce action within the organization’s environment. Company rules must be rendered in writing and also updated to reflect any readjust in the organization’s operational environment. Correctly written service rules are supplied to specify entities, attributes, relationships, and constraints. Due to the fact that these components type the basis because that a database design, the mindful derivation and definition of service rules is crucial to great database design. 3. How do you translate company rules into data design components? together a basic rule, a noun in a company rule will interpret into an reality in the model, and also a verb (active or passive) associating noun will analyze into a relationship among the entities. Because that example, the business rule “a customer may generate numerous invoices” consists of two noun (customer and invoice) and a verb (“generate”) that associates them.download full paper at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com4. Describe the an easy features that the relational data model and also discuss their prestige to the finish user and also the designer. A relational database is a solitary data repository that provides both structural and data self-reliance while maintaining theoretical simplicity. The relational database design is viewed by the user to be a arsenal of tables in i beg your pardon data space stored. Each table resembles a matrix created of row and also columns. Tables are concerned each various other by sharing a usual value in one of their columns. The relational model represents a breakthrough because that users and designers because it allows them operate in a simpler theoretical environment. Finish users find it simpler to visualize your data as a collection of data organized as a matrix. Designers find it simpler to transaction with theoretical data representation, releasing them indigenous the complexities connected with physics data representation. 5. Define how the entity relationship (ER) model helped develop a more structured relational database design environment. One entity connection model, also known together an ERM, helps recognize the database"s key entities and their relationships. Because the ERM components are graphically represented, their function is an ext easily understood. Utilizing the ER diagram, it’s easy to map the ERM come the relational database model’s tables and also attributes. This mapping procedure uses a series of well-defined procedures to generate all the forced database structures. (This frameworks mapping approach is augmented by a procedure known as normalization, i beg your pardon is extended in detail in thing 6 “Normalization of Database Tables.”) 6. Think about the scenario defined by the explain “A customer deserve to make numerous payments, however each payment is made by just one customer” as the basis for an entity relationship diagram (ERD) representation. This scenario yields the ERDs shown in figure Q2.7. (Note the usage of the PowerPoint Crow’s Foot template. We will begin using the Visio Professional-generated Crow’s Foot ERDs in chapter 3, but you can, the course, continue to use the theme if you perform not have accessibility to Visio Professional.)Figure Q2.7 The Chen and Crow’s Foot ERDs for concern 7download full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.comNOTE Remind her students again the we have not (yet) shown the result of optional relationship on the ERD’s presentation. Optional relationships and also their treatment space covered in detail in thing 4, “Entity connection (ER) Modeling.” 7. Why is an object said come have higher semantic content than an entity? an object has better semantic content because it displayed both data and also behavior. That is, the object contains, in enhancement to data, likewise the description of the to work that may be performed by the object. 8. What is the distinction between things and a course in the thing oriented data model (OODM)? an item is an instance of a details class. The is advantageous to allude out that the object is a run-time concept, when the class is a much more static description. Objects the share comparable characteristics room grouped in classes. A class is a repertoire of comparable objects with mutual structure (attributes) and also behavior (methods.) Therefore, a class resembles an reality set. However, a class additionally includes a collection of procedures recognized as methods.download full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.com 9. Exactly how would you version Question 6 with an OODM? (Use figure 2.4 together your guide.) The OODM that coincides to concern 7’s ERD is presented in number Q1.10:Figure Q2.10 The OODM model for concern 1010. What is an ERDM, and also what role does it play in the modern-day (production) database environment? The prolonged Relational Data version (ERDM) is the relational data model’s response to the thing Oriented Data model (OODM.) Most present RDBMSes support at least a couple of of the ERDM’s extensions. For example, assistance for huge binary objects (BLOBs) is currently common. Return the "ERDM" brand has frequently been used in the database literature to define the relational database model"s solution to the OODM"s challenges, C. J. Day objects to the ERDM brand for the adhering to reasons: 1  The valuable contribution that "the object model" is its capability to allow users define their own -- and often very complex -- data types. However, mathematical structures recognized as "domains" in the relational version also carry out this ability. Therefore, a relational DBMS that appropriately supports such domain names greatly diminishes the factor for using the object model. Given ideal support for domains, relational database models are quite qualified of taking care of the facility data encountered in time series, design design, office automation, gaue won modeling, and also so on. Due to the fact that the relational model can support facility data types, the notion of an "extended relational database model" or ERDM is "extremely inappropriate and inaccurate" and "it have to be firmly resisted." (The capability that is supposedly being expanded is already there!)  even the label object/relational model (O/RDM) is not quite accurate, due to the fact that the relational database model"s domain is not an item model structure. However, over there are already quite a few O/R assets -- also known as universal Database Servers -- ~ above the market. Therefore, day concedes that us are probably stuck with the O/R label. In fact, date believes the "an O/R device is in everyone"s 1 C.J. Date, "Back to the Relational Future", http://www.dbpd.com/vault/9808date.html download full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com future." more precisely, Date argues that a true O/R device would it is in "nothing more nor less than a true relational mechanism -- which is come say, a system that support the relational model, with all the such support entails." C. J. Date concludes his discussion by observing the "We need do nothing come the relational model accomplish object functionality. (Nothing, the is, other than implement it, something that doesn"t yet seem to have been tried in the advertisement world.)" 11. What is a relationship, and also what three varieties of relationship exist? A connection is an association among (two or more) entities. Three varieties of relationship exist: oneto-one (1:1), one-to-many (1:M), and also many-to-many (M:N or M:M.) 12. Give an example of each of the three species of relationships. 1:1 An scholastic department is chaired through one professor; a professor might chair just one scholastic department. 1:M A customer might generate numerous invoices; each invoice is produced by one customer. M:N one employee may have earned countless degrees; a level may have actually been earned by plenty of employees. 13. What is a table, and also what duty does that play in the relational model? strict speaking, the relational data version bases data storage on relations. These connections are based on algebraic collection theory. However, the user awareness the relationships to be tables. In the relational database environment, designers and users consciousness a table to be a procession consisting that a collection of row/column intersections.Tables, likewise called relations, are concerned each various other by share a typical entity characteristic. For example, an INVOICE table would contain a customer number that points come that very same number in the client table. This feature permits the RDBMS to link invoices come the client who created them. Tables space especially beneficial from the modeling and implementation perspecectives. Since tables are used to describe the reality they represent, they carry out ane asy method to summarize reality characteristics and also relationships among entities. And, due to the fact that they are purely theoretical constructs, the designer does not must be concerned about the physical implementation elements of the database design.download full record at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full document at http://testbankcafe.com 14. What is a relational diagram? offer an example. A relational chart is a visual representation of the relational database’s entities, the features within those entities, and also the relationships in between those entities. Therefore, that is straightforward to see what the entities represent and to see what types of relationship (1:1, 1:M, M:N) exist among the entities and also how those relationships are implemented. An instance of a relational chart is found in the text’s number 2.2. 15. What is connectivity? (Use a Crow’s Foot ERD to illustrate connectivity.) Connectivity is the relational hatchet to define the varieties of relationship (1:1, 1:M, M:N).In the figure, the businesss rule that one advisor deserve to advise plenty of students and also a student has only one assigned advisor is displayed with in a connection with a connectivity that 1:M. The company rule the a student deserve to register only one car to park ~ above campus and a vehicle can be registered by only one college student is presented with a connection with a connectivity the 1:1. Finally, the preeminence that a student have the right to register for many classes, and a course can be registered because that by numerous students, is shown by the relationship with a connectivity the M:N. 16. Define the big Data phenomenon. Over the last couple of years, a new wave that data has actually “emerged” come the limelight. Such data have actually alsways exsisted but did not recive the attention that is receiving today. These data are defined for gift high volume (petabyte size and also beyond), high frequency (data space generated practically constantly), and also mostly semi-structured. This data come indigenous multiple and also vatied resources such as net site logs, internet site posts in social sites, and machine generated information (GPS, sensors, etc.) together data; have been built up over the years and also companies are now awakining to the truth that it has a many of covert information that could help the day-to-day organization (such as browsing patterns, to buy preferences, behaivor patterns, etc.) The must manage and leverage this data has actually triggered a phenomenon labeling “Big Data”. Huge Data refers to a motion to discover newdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.com and far better ways to manage large amounts of web-generated data and derive company insight indigenous it, while, at the very same time, offering high performance and scalability in ~ a reasonable cost. 17. What does the term “3 vs” advert to? The term “3 Vs” describes the 3 an easy characteristics of big Data databases, lock are:  Volume: refers to the quantities of data gift stored. Through the fostering and growth of the Internet and also social media, companies have actually multiplied the ways to with customers. End the years, and with the advantage of technical advances, data for countless e-transactions were being stored everyday on company databases. Furthermore, organizations are utilizing multiple modern technologies to interact with finish users and those technologies are generating mountains of data. This evergrowing volume that data quickly reached petabytes in size and also it"s still growing.  Velocity: refers not just to the speed with i m sorry data grow but additionally to the require to procedure these data easily in bespeak to generate information and insight. Through the introduction of the Internet and social media, organization responses times have shrunk considerably. Institutions need not only to store big volumes of quickly accumulating data, but also need to process such data quickly. The velocity of data development is additionally due to the rise in the number of different data streams from which data is being piped come the organization (via the web, e-commerce, Tweets, facebook posts, emails, sensors, GPS, and also so on).  Variety: refers to the truth that the data being collected comes in multiple different data formats. A great portion of this data come in formats not suitable to be handled by the typical operational databases based on the relational model. The 3 Vs structure illustrates what companies currently know, the the amount of data being built up in your databases has actually been growing exponentially in size and also complexity. Traditional relational databases are good at controlling structured data but are no well suited to managing and also processing the quantities and species of data being accumulated in today"s organization environment. 18. What is Haddop and what space its straightforward components? In bespeak to produce value native their formerly unused huge Data stores, suppliers are utilizing new big Data technologies. These emerging technologies enable organizations to procedure massive data shop of multiple formats in cost-effective ways. Few of the most commonly used large Data technologies room Hadoop and MapReduce.  Hadoop is a Java based, open source, high speed, fault-tolerant dispersed storage and computational framework. Hadoop supplies lowcost hardware to create clusters that thousands of computer system nodes to store and procedure data. Hadoop source from Google"s work-related ondownload full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full paper at http://testbankcafe.comdistributed file systems and also parallel processing and also is currently supported by the Apache software program Foundation. 2Hadoop has actually several modules, yet the 2 main components are Hadoop Distributed document System (HDFS) and MapReduce. Hadoop Distributed paper System (HDFS) is a very distributed, faulttolerant paper storage mechanism designed come manage big amounts that data at high speeds. In bespeak to attain high throughput, HDFS uses the write-once, read many model. This way that when the data is written, it can not be modified. HDFS provides three varieties of nodes: a name node the stores all the metadata around the record system; a data node that stores fixed-size data block (that could be replicated to other data nodes) and also a client node that acts as the interface in between the user application and the HDFS. MapReduce is one open resource application programming user interface (API) the provides fast data analysis services. MapReduce distributes the handling of the data among thousands that nodes in parallel. MapReduce works v structured and also nonstructured data. The MapReduce structure provides two main functions, Map and Reduce. In general terms, the Map role takes a job and divides it right into smaller devices of work; the Reduce function collects every the calculation results produced from the nodes and also integrates them into a single an outcome set.19. What is thin data? give an example. Thin data refers to cases in i m sorry the number of attributes are very large, but the numbers yet the actual number of distinct value instances is relatively small. For example, if you are modeling census data, you will have actually an entitty dubbed person. This reality person can have hundred of attributes, several of those features would be an initial name, last name, degree, employer, income, veteran status, international born, etc. Although, there would be many millions that rows the data for each person, there will be many attributes that will be left blank, for example, no all people will have a degree, an revenue or an employer. Even fewer persons will certainly be veterans or international born. Every time that you have actually an data reality that has numerous columns however the data instances because that the columns are very low (many empty attribute occurrences) it is said that you have actually sparse data. There is an additional related terminoligy, data sparcity that refers to the number of different worths a fiven columns might have. In this case, a pillar such as “gender” although the will have actually values for all rows, it has actually a short data sparcity since the number of different values is ony two: male or female. A tower such as name and also birthdate will have actually high data sparcity since the number of different worths is high. 20.Define and describe the an easy characteristics the a NoSQL database.2 For much more information about Hadoop visit hadoop.apache.org.download full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full paper at http://testbankcafe.com Every time you find for a product on Amazon, send messages to friends in Facebook, clock a video clip in YouTube or search for directions in Google Maps, you space using a NoSQL database. NoSQL describes a new generation of databases that attend to the very particular challenges that the “big data” era and also have the adhering to general characteristics:21.Not based on the relational model. These databases room generally based on a variation of the key-value data design rather than in the relational model, for this reason the NoSQL name. The key-value data model is based upon a structure composed of two data elements: a key and a value; in which for every key there is a equivalent value (or a collection of values). The key-value data design is likewise referred to as the attribute-value or associative data model. In the key-value data model, each row represents one attribute of one entity instance. The “key” pillar points to an attribute and also the “value” column contains the actual value for the attribute. The data kind of the “value” obelisk is generally a long string to accommodate the variety of actual data types of the worths that are placed in the column.Support dispersed database architectures. Among the huge advantages the NoSQL databases is the they typically use a distributed architecture. In fact, number of of lock (Cassandra, large Table) space designed to use low expense commodity servers to kind a complex network of distributed database nodesProvide high scalability, high accessibility and error tolerance. NoSQL databases are designed to assistance the capability to add capacity (add database nodes come the dispersed database) when the demand is high and also to carry out it transparently and also without downtime. Error tolerant means that if among the nodes in the distributed database fails, the database will keep operating together normal.Support very big amounts of sparse data. Since NoSQL databases usage the key-value data model, they room suited to handle very high volumes of thin data; that is for instances where the number of attributes is very big but the number of actual data instances is low.Geared toward performance fairly than transaction consistency. One of the biggest troubles of very large distributed databases is come enforce data consistency. Distributed databases instantly make copies of data facets at lot of nodes – come ensure high availability and fault tolerance. If the node through the asked for data go down, the request have the right to be offered from any type of other node with a copy the the data. However, what take place if the network go down during a data update? In a relational database, transaction updates space guaranteed to be continuous or the transaction is rolling back. NoSQL databases sacrifice consistency in bespeak to achieve high levels of performance. NoSQL databases provide eventual consistency. Eventual consistency is a function of NoSQL databases that suggests that data are not guarantee to it is in consistent automatically after an upgrade (across all copies of the data) yet rather, that updates will propagate with the system and eventually all data copies will it is in consistent.Using the instance of a medical clinic v patients and also tests, provide a basic representation of exactly how to model this example using the relational model and how the wold be represented using the key-value data modeling technique.download full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full document at http://testbankcafe.com as you can see in number Q2.21, the relational model stores data in a tabular layout in i beg your pardon each heat represents a “record” because that a offered patient. While, the key-value data version uses three differnet areas to stand for each data facet in the record. Therefore, for each patient row, there are three rows in the key-value model.22.What is logical independence?Logical self-reliance exists when you can change the inner model without affecting the conceptual model. As soon as you comment on logical and other types of independence, the worthwhile come discuss and also review some straightforward modeling concepts and also terminology:  In basic terms, a version is an abstraction the a more complex real-world object or event. A model’s main duty is to assist you understand the complexities of the real-world environment. Within the database environment, a data version represents data structures and their characteristics, relations, constraints, and also transformations. Together its surname implies, a purely conceptual model stands at the greatest level the abstraction and focuses on the basic ideas (concepts) that space explored in the model, there is no specifying the details that will enable the designer to implement the model. For example, a conceptual model would encompass entities and their relationships and also it may even encompass at the very least some of the features that specify the entities, however it would not include attribute details such as the nature of the qualities (text, numeric, etc.) or the physics storage needs of those atttributes. Download full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.com    23.The state data model and also database design are frequently used interchangeably. In the text, the term database model is be provided to refer to the implementation that a data design in a details database system. Data models (relatively straightforward representations, typically graphical, that more complicated real-world data structures), bolstered by an effective database architecture tools, have actually made it possible to dramatically diminish the potential because that errors in database design. The internal model is the representation of the database as “seen” by the DBMS. In other words, the internal model needs the designer to match the theoretical model’s characteristics and constraints to those of the selected implementation model. An inner schema depicts a particular representation the an interior model, making use of the database constructs sustained by the preferred database. The outside model is the finish users’ see of the data environment.What is physical independence? You have physical self-reliance when girlfriend can change the physical model without influence the interior model. Therefore, a readjust in storage tools or methods and also even a change in operating mechanism will not affect the internal model. The state physical model and also internal model might require a little of extr discussion:  The physical design operates in ~ the shortest level that abstraction, explicate the means data are saved on warehouse media such as disks or tapes. The physical model requires the definition of both the physical storage devices and also the (physical) access methods required to reach the data in ~ those storage devices, making it both software- and also hardwaredependent. The storage structures offered are dependence on the software application (DBMS, operation system) and also on the kind of storage devices that the computer can handle. The precision forced in the physics model’s meaning demands that database developers who work-related at this level have a in-depth knowledge that the hardware and software provided to carry out the database design.  The inner model is the depiction of the database as “seen” through the DBMS. In various other words, the internal model requires the designer to match the theoretical model’s characteristics and constraints to those of the selected implementation model. An internal schema depicts a certain representation of an interior model, making use of the database constructs sustained by the chosen database.download full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full paper at http://testbankcafe.com difficulty Solutions use the materials of number 2.1 to work troubles 1-3. 1. Create the service rule(s) that governs the relationship in between AGENT and also CUSTOMER. Provided the data in the two tables, you deserve to see that an certified dealer – with AGENT_CODE -- can occur numerous times in the customer table. But each customer has actually only one agent. Therefore, the organization rules might be created as follows: One agent can have many customers. Each customer has actually only one agent. Offered these organization rules, you have the right to conclude the there is a 1:M relationship between AGENT and also CUSTOMER. 2. Given the business rule(s) you wrote in problem 1, create the basic Crow’s Foot ERD. The Crow’s Foot ERD is shown in number P2.2a.Figure P2.2a The Crow’s Foot ERD for trouble 3For discussion purposes, you could use the Chen model displayed in number P2.2b. To compare the two representations of the company rules by note the various ways in which connectivities (1,M) are represented. The Chen ERD is presented in number P2.2b.Figure P2.2b The Chen ERD for problem 2download full record at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full paper at http://testbankcafe.com 3. Making use of the ERD you drew in problem 2, develop the indistinguishable Object representation and also UML class diagram. (Use number 2.4 as your guide.) The OO version is presented in number P2.3.Figure P2.3 The OO model for problem 3Using figure P2.4 together your guide, work difficulties 4–5. The DealCo relational diagram mirrors the early stage entities and attributes because that the DealCo stores, located in two areas of the country.Figure P2.4 The DealCo relational diagram 4. Identify each relationship kind and write every one of the service rules. One an ar can be the place for numerous stores. Each store is located in only one region. Therefore, the connection between region and store is 1:M. Each keep employs one or more employees. Each employee is work by one store. (In this case, we room assuming that the business rule mentions that one employee cannot work-related in much more than one keep at a time.) Therefore, the relationship between STORE and EMPLOYEE is 1:M. A job – such together accountant or sales representative -- can be assigned to many employees. (For example, one would fairly assume that a store can have an ext than one sales representative. Therefore, the job title “Sales Representative” have the right to be assigned to an ext than one employee in ~ a time.) every employee deserve to have just one job assignment. (In this case, we space assuming that the organization rule states that an employee cannot have an ext than one project assignment at a time.) Therefore, the relationship in between JOB and EMPLOYEE is 1:M.download full paper at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com 5. Produce the straightforward Crow’s Foot ERD for DealCo. The Crow’s Foot ERD is presented in number P2.5a.Figure P2.5a The Crow’s Foot ERD because that DealCoThe Chen version is shown in number P2.5b. (Note the you constantly read the partnership from the “1” to the “M” side.)Figure P2.5b The Chen ERD for DealCodownload full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com Using number P2.6 as your guide, work difficulties 6−8 The small College relational diagram reflects the early entities and attributes because that Tiny College.Figure P2.6 The small College relational diagram 6. Identify each relationship type and write every one of the company rules. The simplest means to show the relationship in between ENROLL, CLASS, and STUDENT is to talk about the data shown in Table P2.6. Together you research the Table P2.6 contents and compare the attributes to relational schema presented in number P2.6, note these features:  us have added an attribute, ENROLL_SEMESTER, to recognize the enrollment period.  Naturally, no grade has yet to be assigned once the college student is very first enrolled, so us have gone into a default worth “NA” because that “Not Applicable.” The letter grade – A, B, C, D, F, ns (Incomplete), or W (Withdrawal) -- will be gone into at the conclusion that the enrollment period, the SPRING-12 semester.  college student 11324 is enrolled in 2 classes; student 11892 is enrolled in 3 classes, and also student 10345 is enrolled in one class.Table P2.6 Sample contents of one ENROLL Table STU_NUM 11324 11324 11892 11892 11892 10345CLASS_CODE MATH345-04 ENG322-11 CHEM218-05 ENG322-11 CIS431-01 ENG322-07ENROLL_SEMESTER SPRING-14 SPRING-14 SPRING-14 SPRING-14 SPRING-14 SPRING-14ENROLL_GRADE NA NA NA NA NA NAAll the the relationships are 1:M. The relationships may be created as follows: course generates CLASS. One course deserve to generate plenty of classes. Each class is produced by one course.download full paper at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com course is referenced in ENROLL. One course can be referenced in enrollment numerous times. Each individual enrollment referrals one class. Keep in mind that the ENROLL entity is also related to STUDENT. Every entry in the ENROLL entity referrals one student and the course for which that student has actually enrolled. A student cannot enroll in the exact same class an ext than once. If a student enrolls in four classes, the student will appear in the ENROLL entity 4 times, every time for a different class. College student is displayed in ENROLL. One student deserve to be displayed in enrollment many times. (In database style terms, “many” simply method “more 보다 once.”) each individual enrollment entry mirrors one student. 7. Develop the simple Crow’s Foot ERD because that Tiny College. The Crow’s Foot model is shown in figure P2.7a.Figure P2.7a The Crow’s Foot design for tiny CollegeThe Chen design is shown in number P2.7b.Figure P2.7b The Chen design for small Collegedownload full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.com 8. Create the UML class diagram that mirrors the entities and relationships you determined in the relational diagram. The OO model is shown in number P2.8.Figure P2.8 The OO model for small College9. Typically, a patient remaining in a hospital receives medications that have actually been bespeak by a details doctor. Due to the fact that the patient frequently receives several medicines per day, over there is a 1:M relationship in between PATIENT and also ORDER. Similarly, every order can include several medications, creating a 1:M relationship in between ORDER and also MEDICATION. A. Identify the service rules for PATIENT, ORDER, and MEDICATION. The organization rules reflect in thePATIENT summary are: A patient have the right to have numerous (medical) orders created for that or her. Each (medical) stimulate is written for a solitary patient. The company rules refected in the ORDER description are: each (medical) order have the right to prescribe numerous medications. Each medication can be prescribed in numerous orders. The business rules refected in the MEDICATION summary are: each medication have the right to be prescribed in many orders. Each (medical) order deserve to prescribe plenty of medications. B. Produce a Crow"s Foot ERD the depicts a relational database version to capture these business rules.download full record at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full document at http://testbankcafe.com number P2.9 Crow"s foot ERD for trouble 910. United broke Artists (UBA) is a broker for not-so-famous painters. UBA maintains a small network database to monitor painters, paintings, and galleries. A paint is painted by a specific artist, and that painting is displayed in a details gallery. A gallery deserve to exhibit countless paintings, however each painting have the right to be exhibited in just one gallery. Similarly, a paint is painted by a single painter, yet each painter deserve to paint numerous paintings. Using PAINTER, PAINTING, and also GALLERY, in terms of a relational database: a. What tables would certainly you create, and what would the table materials be? us would develop the 3 tables displayed in figure P2.10a. (Use the teacher’s Ch02_UBA database in your instructor"s resources to illustrate the table contents.)FIGURE P2.10a The UBA Database Tablesdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.comAs you discuss the UBA database contents, keep in mind in details the following service rules that are reflected in the tables and their contents:  A painter have the right to paint might paintings.  Each paint is painted by just one painter.  A gallery can exhibit countless paintings.  A painter deserve to exhibit paints at much more than one collection at a time. (For example, if a painter has painted six paintings, two may be displayed in one gallery, one in ~ another, and also three in ~ the 3rd gallery. Naturally, if galleries point out exclusive contracts, the database have to be changed to reflect that company rule.)  Each painting is displayed in only one gallery. The last company rule shows the truth that a painting have the right to be physically located in only one gallery at a time. If the artist decides to move a paint to a different gallery, the database need to be update to remove the paint from one gallery and include it come the various gallery. B. How can the (independent) tables be concerned one another? number P2.10b reflects the relationships.FIGURE P2.10b The UBA Relational diagram download full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com11. Utilizing the ERD from trouble 10, develop the relational schema. (Create an ideal collection of qualities for each of the entities. Make sure you usage the suitable naming conventions to surname the attributes.) The relational diagram is shown in figure P2.11.FIGURE P2.11 The Relational diagram for trouble 11download full record at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com 12. Transform the ERD from problem 10 into the corresponding UML course diagram. The straightforward OODM equipment is presented in figure P2.12.FIGURE P2.12 The OODM for difficulty 1213. Explain the relationship (identify the service rules) shown in the Crow’s Foot ERD displayed in figure P2.13.Figure P2.13 The Crow’s Foot ERD for trouble 13 The service rules may be composed as follows:  A professor have the right to teach many classes.  Each course is teach by one professor.  A professor have the right to advise numerous students.  Each college student is advised by one professor. 14. Produce a Crow’s Foot ERD to incorporate the following company rules for the ProdCo company: a. Each sales representative writes many invoices. B. Every invoice is composed by one sales representative. C. Each sales representative is assigned come one department. D. Every department has countless sales representatives. E. Every customer have the right to generate plenty of invoices. F. Every invoice is created by one customer.download full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full file at http://testbankcafe.com The Crow’s Foot ERD is displayed in number P2.23. Keep in mind that a 1:M relationship is always read from the one (1) to the numerous (M) side. Therefore, the customer-invoice relationship is review as “one client generates plenty of invoices.”Figure P2.14 Crow’s Foot ERD for the ProdCo Company15. Create the company rules that space reflected in the ERD shown in number P2.15. (Note the the ERD shows some simplifying assumptions. For example, each book is written by only one author. Also, remember that the ERD is always read from the “1” to the “M” side, nevertheless of the orientation the the ERD components.)FIGURE P2.15 The Crow’s Foot ERD for problem 15The relationship are ideal described through a set of company rules:  One publisher can publish plenty of books. Download full paper at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full paper at http://testbankcafe.com       Each publication is released by one publisher. A publisher have the right to submit numerous (book) contracts. Each (book) contract is it is registered by one publisher. One writer can sign countless contracts. Every contract is signed by one author. One writer can write numerous books. Each book is composed by one author.This ERD will be a good basis for a discussion around what wake up when more realistic presumptions are made. Because that example, a publication – such together this one – might be composed by more than one author. Therefore, a contract may be signed by an ext than one author. Her students will certainly learn how to model such relationship after they have become familiar through the material in chapter 3. 16. Produce a Crow’s Foot ERD because that each the the following descriptions. (Note: The word numerous merely way “more 보다 one” in the database modeling environment.) a. Each of the MegaCo Corporation’s divisions is composed of numerous departments. Every of those departments has numerous employees assigned come it, but each employee functions for just one department. Each department is controlled by one employee, and also each the those supervisors can manage only one room at a time. The Crow’s Foot ERD is presented in number P2.16a.FIGURE P2.16a The MegaCo Crow’s Foot ERDAs you talk about the materials of number P2.16a, note the 1:1 relationship in between the EMPLOYEE and also the department in the “manages” relationship and the 1:M relationship in between the DEPARTMENT and also the EMPLOYEE in the “is assigned to” relationship. B. Throughout some duration of time, a customer can rent plenty of videotapes native the BigVid store. Each of the BigVid’s videotapes can be rented to countless customers throughout that period of time. The solution is presented in number P2.16b. Keep in mind the M:N relationship between CUSTOMER and also VIDEO. Such a partnership is no implementable in a relational model. Download full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com number P2.16b The BigVid Crow’s Foot ERDIf you want to let the students transform Figure P2.16b’s ERD into an implementable ERD, add a third RENTAL entity to develop a 1:M relationship in between CUSTOMER and also RENTAL and also a 1:M relationship between video and RENTAL. (Note the such a conversion has actually been shown in the next trouble solution.) c. One airliner can be assigned to fly many flights, but each trip is flown by only one airliner.FIGURE P2.16c The Airline Crow’s Foot ERDWe have developed a little Ch02_Airline database come let you explore the implementation of the model. (Check her Instructor’s CD.) The tables and the relational diagram are shown in the complying with two figures.download full paper at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full record at http://testbankcafe.com number P2.16c The Airline Database TablesFIGURE P2.16c The Airline Relational Diagramdownload full document at http://testbankcafe.comdownload full paper at http://testbankcafe.com d. The KwikTite corporation operates many factories. Each manufacturing facility is situated in a region. Each an ar can be “home” to plenty of of KwikTite’s factories. Each manufacturing facility employs many employees, however each that those employee is work by just one factory. The solution is displayed in number P2.16d.FIGURE P2.16d The KwikTite Crow’s Foot ERDe. One employee may have earned plenty of degrees, and also each degree may have been earned by countless employees.

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The equipment is displayed in number P2.16e.FIGURE P2.16e The Earned degree Crow’s Foot ERDNote the this M:N relationship have to be broken up into two 1:M relationships prior to it can be enforced in a relational database. Use the Airline ERD’s decomposition in figure P2.16c together the focal suggest in her discussion.download full file at http://testbankcafe.com