Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the move of an electron native a metal atom come a non-metal atom.

You are watching: Can a stable compound be made from these two atoms? explain why or why not.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds space formed in between cations and anions.A cation is developed when a metal ion loses a valence electron if an anion is created when a non-metal gains a valence electron. They both achieve a an ext stable electronic configuration with this exchange.Ionic solids type crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, v high melting points, and are frequently soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic link which disappear in H2O, make the result solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of one atom to tempt electrons to itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a form of chemical bond in i m sorry valence electrons are lost from one atom and also gained through another. This exchange results in a much more stable, noble gas digital configuration for both atom involved. One ionic bond is based upon attractive electrostatic forces in between two ion of the contrary charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic bonds involve a cation and also an anion. The link is developed when an atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and becomes a confident ion, or cation. One more atom, commonly a non-metal, is maybe to get the electron(s) to become a an unfavorable ion, or anion.

One instance of one ionic shortcut is the development of salt fluoride, NaF, from a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loser its single valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has just enough an are to expropriate it. The ions created are oppositely charged and are attracted to one another due come electrostatic forces.


Formation that NaF: one electron is transferred from Na come F. The result Na+ and also F– ions are electrically attracted to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds form lattices, are crystalline solids under common conditions, and also have high melt points. Most of these solids room soluble in H2O and also conduct electricity when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electricity in solution is why this substances are referred to as electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a an excellent example of this form of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable electronic states connected with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared in between the 2 atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, yet the bigger the distinction in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the greater the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen defines how ionic solids form when cations and also anions are attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure of the bond stamin in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the factors that influence it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is identified as the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot it is in measured empirically, but it deserve to be calculated making use of electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that contribute to the size of the lattice energy are the charge and radius of the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases heat into that is surroundings.lattice energy: The quantity of power released upon development of a crystalline ionic heavy from gas ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond strength in ionic compounds. It is identified as the warmth of formation for ions of opposite fee in the gas phase to integrate into one ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the energy released when gaseous Na+ and Cl– ion come together to kind a lattice of alternate ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The an adverse sign of the energy is indicative of an exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice energy can be assumed of together the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous kind of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction displayed above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, depicted in purple and also green respectively, alternating in the decision lattice of heavy NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction presented above).

Lattice energy cannot be figured out experimentally as result of the an obstacle in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value can be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it have the right to be calculate theoretically v an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors influence Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande gift the following model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a properties of the compressibility the the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of cost-free space; and also r0 is the distance to the closestly ion.

This design emphasizes 2 main components that contribute to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the charge on the ions, and also the radius, or size, that the ions. The impact of those determinants is:

as the fee of the ion increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ions increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are additionally important in predicting the solubility that ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies often tend to be much more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound have the right to be determined by the loss or acquire of valence electrons crucial in order to attain stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The variety of cations and also anions the are linked in an ionic compound is the simplest ratio of totality integers that have the right to be combined to reach electrical neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any of the elements of team 18 the the periodic table, which room monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i beg your pardon occurs as soon as an atom or molecule/compound has no surplus or deficit the electrons.empirical formula: The easiest whole-number ratio between elements in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion created of several atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic bond is created through the carry of one or an ext valence electrons, generally from a metal to a non-metal, i m sorry produces a cation and also an anion that room bound with each other by an attractive electrostatic force. ~ above a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as salt chloride (NaCl), type a crystalline lattice and are solids at regular temperatures and pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride decision lattice


The charge on the cations and also anions is established by the number of electrons forced to attain stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic ingredient is then identified by the necessity that the resulting link be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to integrate magnesium (Mg) and bromine (Br) to acquire an ionic compound, we first note the electronic configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In stimulate to achieve noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom demands to lose its 2 valence electrons, if the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, requires one extr electron to to fill its external shell. Therefore, because that the resulting compound to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must integrate with one magnesium cation to form magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any type of ratio of 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will satisfy the two demands above, the formula for ionic compound is generally presented together the empirical formula, or the most basic whole-number ratio of atom with confident integers.

Note that the cation always precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the composed form, if the cation surname is typically the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is readjusted to –ide, as in the case of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that suffix have the right to vary, yet is typically either –ate or –ite,as in the cases of salt phosphate and calcium nitrite, relying on the identity of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– combine to kind LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and also Cl– incorporate to kind CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- integrate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- incorporate to type Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- integrate to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- combine to form (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– incorporate to type KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the complete transfer that valence electrons, generally from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron density remains shared in between the constituent atoms, an interpretation all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a shortcut is determined by the family member electronegativities of the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent shortcut that has actually a partial ionic character to it, as a result of the distinction in electronegativity between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure of the propensity of an atom to attract electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compound are typically classified by the bonds in between constituent atoms. There space multiple kinds of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented as the complete loss or acquire of one or more valence electrons from a steel to a nonmetal, bring about cations and also anions the are organized together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of one ionic bond between lithium and fluorine to form LiF.


Example of a polar covalent bond: as soon as a carbon atom develops a bond through fluorine, castle share a pair that electrons. However, because fluorine is an ext highly electronegative than carbon, it attracts that mutual electron pair closer to itself and also thus create an electrical dipole. The small letter greek delta written above the atoms is used to suggest the visibility of partial charges. This shortcut is thought about to have features of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond in between these atom is more facility than this design illustrates. The bond formed between any kind of two atom is not a completely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have some covalent character since the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a shortcut is established by the distinction in electronegativity in between the constituent atoms. The larger the difference, the more ionic the nature that the bond. In the standard presentation, bonds room designated as ionic when the ionic facet is better than the covalent element of the bond. Bond that loss in in between the two extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, space classified as polar covalent bonds. Such bonds room thought of as consisting of partially charged positive and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character represent points follow me a continuum, these designations space frequently valuable in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and also covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds typically have higher boiling and melting points, and also they are additionally usually more soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.