Rotary push prints with gauge 11 through 10½ perforations authorize in panes of six in multipane booklets v interleaves and cardboard consist of are noted as Scott 632a, through a catalog value that $5 unused and also $4 used.

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Rotary press prints of the 1¢ Franklin stamp through gauge 11 through 10½ perforations approve in panes of 100 are listed as Scott 632, with a minimum directory value the 25¢ unused or used.


Rotary push prints through gauge 10 perforations approve in panes that 100 are provided as Scott 581, with a brochure value the $10 unused and 75¢ used.


Vertical style coil stamps through gauge 10 horizontal perforations are provided as Scott 604, v a brochure value of 40¢ unused and 25¢ used. This stamps were printed on the same presses as horizontal style coils and also issued in 500- and 1,000-stamp rolls, however were less popular among mail users.


Horizontal format coil stamps with gauge 10 upright perforations, issued in roll of 500, 1,000 and 3,000 stamps, are noted as Scott 597, v a brochure value that 30¢ unused and also 25¢ used. Every coil stamps that this collection were published on rotary presses.


Imperforate flat-plate prints issued in uncut sheets the 400 because that proprietary perforation and also coiling by private manufacturers of stamp vending and affixing machines are noted as Scott 575, through a magazine value that $5 supplied or unused.

Flat-plate prints with gauge 11 perforations issued as panes of six in multipane booklets with interleaves and also cardboard covers are provided as Scott 552a, through a directory value the $7.50 unused and $4 used.

Flat-plate prints the the 1¢ Franklin stamp with gauge 11 perforations authorize in panes of 100 are provided as Scott 552, v a minimum current brochure value of 25¢ either used or unused.

Five single Scott 596 stamps are videotaped with plain postal cancellations. In that condition the directory value in the grade of well is $150,000.

Tall rotary press sheet rubbish stamps through gauge 11 perforations are noted as Scott 596. It is among the rarest stamps that the 20th century, and also is known only in used condition. Around 10 are tape-recorded with Kansas City, Mo., precancel overprints. The catalog value of the bureau precanceled variety is $100,000.

Oklahoma collector Roland Austin to buy this cover for 25¢ at a stamp show in 1990. The franking includes a pair of scarce Scott 594 coil rubbish stamps, which has a current catalog value that $25,000.

Wide rotary push coil waste stamps with gauge 11 perforations are detailed as Scott 594. They have a catalog value that $65,000 unused through gum, $35,000 unused without gum and also $10,500 used. Both unused and used values space for off-center stamps with the perforations touching the structure line on one side. They are scarce stamps; around 125 have actually been recorded.

Rotary push prints v gauge 11 by 10 perforations, so-called coil rubbish stamps issued in sheets of 170, are listed as Scott 578, with a catalog value of $75 unused and $160 used.

Rotary push prints of the 1¢ Franklin stamp with gauge 11 through 10½ perforations, overprinted “CANAL ZONE” and issued in panes of 100, are detailed as Canal ar Scott 100, through a magazine value that $1.75 unused and also $1.40 used. The overprint format on rotary push stamps is called form B.

Flat-plate prints that the 1¢ Franklin stamp with gauge 11 perforations, overprinted “CANAL ZONE” and issued as panes of 6 in multipane booklets through interleaves and cardboard covers, are provided as Canal region Scott 71e, through a magazine value the $80 in unused problem only.

Flat-plate prints that the 1¢ Franklin stamp v gauge 11 perforations, overprinted “CANAL ZONE” and issued in panes of 100, are listed as Canal region Scott 71, with a brochure value the $1.40 unused and also $1 used. The overprint style on flat-plate stamps is called form A.

Rotary press prints with gauge 11 by 10½ perforations overprinted “Nebr.” are noted as Scott 669, v a catalog value of $3.25 unused and also $2.25 used.

Rotary press prints through gauge 11 by 10½ perforations overprinted “Kans.” are detailed as Scott 658, v a brochure value of $2.50 unused and $2 used.

In the Scott stamp catalogs, 16 various 1¢ environment-friendly Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 1922 United states definitive collection share architecture No. A155. Some space common; some space rare. Learning exactly how to determine each one is critical lesson because that specialists.

By Ken Lawrence

Most 1¢ environment-friendly Benjamin Franklin stamps room common and valued at less than $1, but two rotary push varieties that look nearly the same as typical flat-plate problems are scarce and worth thousands. Ken Lawrence explains how come understand and identify the rarely ones.

Is her stamp United says Scott 594 or 596?

Probably not. These space the scarce (Scott 594) and rare (596) rotary press 1¢ eco-friendly Benjamin Franklin stamps the 1924 through gauge 11 perforations both horizontally and vertically.

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The 1¢ eco-friendly Franklin stamps are among the most typical of every United states stamps issued from 1922 to 1938. To a novice castle seem the same to the rarely ones, yet experienced stamp collectors have the right to tell the difference.

The Scott devoted Catalogue the United says Stamps and also Covers perform 16 various stamps the share the exact same design type A155 engraved design. That full includes sheet, booklet and also coil stamps; overprinted varieties; flat-plate and rotary press prints; stamps with various perforation measurements; and an imperforate issue.

All those stamps are depicted here, but to a true specialist, those represent only the beginning. One have the right to go on come collect color shades, gum varieties, double transfers and also other bowl varieties, bowl numbers and other marginal markings, vending- and also affixing-machine perforations, errors, freaks, oddities, cancellations, postal uses and other interesting features.

But below we are concerned with 2 that are seldom seen.

Common Look-Alike 1¢ Franklin Stamps

These are the common 1¢ Franklin look-alikes: Scott 552 was printed from level plates. It has actually gauge 11 perforations in both dimensions, yet its printed architecture is smaller sized than one of two people of the rarely ones. The is narrower than Scott 594 and shorter than Scott 596, back all 3 stamps have equivalent perforations.

Another means to recognize a flat-plate stamp is to look ~ above the back. It will certainly usually have actually specks of environment-friendly ink, called set-off, transferred once printed sheets to be stacked one on peak of one more to dry. Rotary press stamps were dried by pass the printed net through a boil chamber prior to being rolled up, therefore they seldom have set-off ~ above the back.

For collectors who know just how to usage a perforation gauge properly and who take mindful measurements, that isn’t complicated to determine the common rotary press sheet stamps that share this design. Scott 578 has actually gauge 11 by 10 perforations; Scott 581, gauge 10; and Scott 632, gauge 11 by 10½. Yet careless measurements deserve to lead come faulty identification, so constantly be meticulous once so much is in ~ stake.

Rotary push Coil Production

All coil stamps the the 1922 collection were published on tiny intaglio rotating presses created by Benjamin R. Stickney a te earlier. Horizontal format coils were published from 170-subject bent plates, 10 subjects across the plate and 17 subjects in the rotary dimension. Curvature of the plates extended the engraved pictures in the horizontal dimension, so the printed pictures are wider than sheet and also booklet stamps printed from level plates.

Two plates were printed in tandem, so the when an installed together on the press they developed a cylindrical surface ar 34 topics in circumference, through a heat of ink printed in the an are where the bowl adjoined. Collectors contact the two stamps that straddle the joint heat “line pairs,” which are premium items. The 1¢ Franklin horizontal coils are listed as Scott 597.

The directory advises customers that the stamp style of Scott 594 measures around 19¾ through 21¼ millimeters, and also Scott 596 measures roughly 19¼ by 22½mm. Unfortunately, inexperienced collectors have seldom to be trained to do reliably precise measurements, and also they regularly tend to check out rulers optimistically.The consequence is invariably disappointment. All also often, lock misidentify a usual Scott 552 as either 594 or 596; many are reluctant to believe experts who advise them of their mistakes.

In my opinion, a better method is to understand how these different stamps to be manufactured, and also why they space different. V that knowledge, hopeful identification i do not care an exercise in using those lessons come the study of every stamp.

Vertical layout coils were published from 150-subject plates of the exact same size yet with the size in a perpendicular layout, 10 subjects across the plate and 15 topics in the rotary dimension, for this reason those plates once paired had a cylindrical circumference of 30 topics with share lines at 15-subject intervals.

Curvature the those plates stretched the engraved images in the upright dimension, so the printed photos are taller 보다 sheet-stamp prints from level plates and narrower than horizontal layout coil stamps. The 1¢ Franklin vertical coils are detailed as Scott 604.

During the years once Scott 597 and 604 coil stamps to be produced, both layouts were perforated gauge 10 in between subjects in one dimension across the printed web and also finished on Stickney coilers that slit each heat apart and also rolled the up, through manila leader and trailer strips attached to the inner and also outer ends of the stamp ribbons.

Both layouts were available in 500- and 1,000-stamp rolfes wound through the gum side in.

Horizontal coils additionally were accessible on unique order in 3,000-stamp roll wound v the gum side out, come accommodate customers of Mailometer high-speed office mailing machines. However no smaller rolls to be issued until long afterward, so perforated net pieces in ~ the beginning and also end of the webs the were too short to complete as 500-stamp rolfes were collection aside, designated “waste.”

Most the those leftover piece of coil waste had gauge 10 perforations throughout the file web width, but smaller end pieces left over from threading and also disengaging the perforator had no perforations at all. Yet all these scraps bore agree engraved 1¢ Franklin prints. Return they to be too little for coil pieces, they can be useful as paper stamps if they were perforated in both dimensions and broken up into panes.

Rotary push Coil Waste

The bureau of Engraving and also Printing policy of salvaging coil rubbish had begun in 1919 as soon as the 1908-21 Washington-Franklin series was still current, and continued as 1922 series stamps replaced them. This permitted the BEP come invoice the write-up Office Department for those perfect stamps instead of soaking up the price of treating the waste together spoilage.

Because the demand for horizontal layout coils to be great, considerable quantities of horizontal coil garbage accumulated, which the BEP processed into finished sheets. Through separating them at the joint lines, every sheet was 17 subjects large and 10 topics high, representing the horizontal coil key layout. (Quantities that vertical format waste were negligible, so those were never ever made right into finished paper stamps.)

Since practically all the pieces to be salvaged had already been perforated gauge 10 vertically, all they necessary was horizontal perforations to finish that component of the process. The paper perforators to be fitted v gauge 11 pen spacings, as seen on the Scott 552 flat-plate stamps, therefore one or much more of those perforators finished the stage, yielding stamps v gauge 11 by 10 compound perforations, Scott 578.

(Coil waste stamps the the 2¢ carmine George Washington design had been issued first, and also in better quantity, yet here we are came to with 1¢ Franklin stamps.)

The POD did not take into consideration these to be new stamps, so no announcement accompanied your appearance in the autumn of 1923. ~ collectors learned of your existence, the POD inserted sheets the 170 on sale at the Philatelic agency in Washington, D.C.

Because no various other 1¢ Franklin stamps have actually compound perforations that measure 11 by 10, these are seldom misidentified by knowledgeable collectors. However coil waste do from tiny pieces that had not passed with the coil perforator is no so easy to identify.

Rotary push Coil waste Perforated 11 by 11

Scott 594, the rotary push coil stamp v gauge 11 perforations in both dimensions, was first reported in April 1925. By then, coil garbage production had ceased, so there to be no an ext to it is in had and also none accessible for philatelic sale.

The BEP had kept no separate documents of amounts produced, yet they must have been small. In the book Linn’s United claims Stamps 1922-26, Gary Griffith readily available an calculation of 51,000.

Known examples were used at three brand-new York City article offices between March and also October 1924.

The Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries census the Scott 594 perform 11 unused through gum, 7 unused without gum, 92 provided singles off cover (four are on piece), four pairs turn off cover (two ~ above piece), and five covers, one of which is franked with a pair, for a full of 124 individual stamps, at the very least one of i m sorry is badly damaged.

Both the flat-plate paper stamp, Scott 552, and this scarce coil waste stamp, Scott 594, have gauge 11 perforations in both dimensions, so it is not easy to tell them apart. As provided previously, the printed style of every coil waste rubber stamp is slightly more comprehensive than the flat-plate counterpart, however the distinction in width is much less than one millimeter, so using a ruler is no the best method of identification.

The allude here is to store in mind the Scott 594 started as a coil rubber stamp print, the same as the yes, really Scott 597 coil, for this reason the easiest method to recognize the former is to view whether the printed style on the stamp is exactly as wide as the printed style on a 1¢ Franklin coil provided for comparison.

Then come double-check, compare it through a typical Scott 552 1¢ Franklin paper stamp. The printed style of a real Scott 594 is visibly wider than the flat-plate sheet stamp image. If the rubber stamp passes both that those tests, it should be submitted to an expertizing business for authentication.

Discovery! A $25,000 covering that cost 25¢

Shown is a cover, not included in the Siegel census, which has a pair of actual Scott 594 coil waste stamps top top it, v a 2015 Scott catalog value the $25,000. The owner, Oklahoma collector Roland Austin, purchase it because that 25¢, fulfilling every collector’s dream that discovery.

Here is his story:

I to be at the Wichita Stamp show in 1999 once a dealer come in and also dumped crate of covers out onto 3 or 4 tables priced at 4 for a dollar. As I to be going with the piles, i came throughout a cover through an auxiliary marking which captured my eye, yet the 2¢ added postage to be canceled by a smudge of ink rather of a date cancel, which ns did not discover appealing, so I put the cover earlier and relocated on to an additional table.

As ns did, I decided that the auxiliary noting was a an excellent deal for 25¢, so i went earlier and retrieved the smudged cover and put the in mine pile. Showing up at home, I put the covering in my box of auxiliary markings and did no look at this covers for number of months, and had no plan to, until I read an article about the Bristol pane .

I remembered this cover had actually a 2¢ stamp with a red heat on it, so ns dug that out and also checked the perfs and also stamp size to see if ns had found a gem. Although no surprised, ns was disappointed the it was no a Bristol pane example. Ns looked in ~ the added two 1¢ stamps and thought, “common work-horse stamps.”

Why I confirm the 1¢ stamps, I carry out not know; perhaps because I already had my perf gauge out and also just wanted to usage it. Sure enough, they were rotary printing, for this reason that meant they had to be perf 10. As soon as I can not gain the perfs to complement gauge 10, I believed I had mismeasured, thinking, “Rotary press-printed stamps with 11 x 11 perforations?”

Rechecking, it to be a definite rotary printing and gauge 11! ~ above looking through my Scott catalogue, I discovered the listing that this stamp and also was stunned the this cover did, indeed, turn out to be a gem, but not because that the reason I very first suspected.

After enduring bouts the ridicule from friends in the hobby for daring to think he had found a true rarity, Austin submitted his cover come the American Philatelic Expertizing Service, i m sorry issued certificate No. 158888, dated Nov. 23, 2004, that asserted it come be actual in every respects. He has one of only two recognized used bag of Scott 594. Both stamps have really fine centering.

Rotary press Sheet Stamps

Large Stickney rotary presses began production that 1922 collection 1¢ Franklin stamps in 1923, published from 400-subject bent plates laid the end in 10 by 10 quadrants, each of which gave in one 100-subject pane of paper stamps. Curvature that the plates stretched the engraved pictures in the vertical dimension, so the printed images are taller 보다 prints from level plates.

This stimulate in May and also June 1923 inaugurated the production of office precanceled stamps that were overprinted in black color ink at a relief print station throughout the very same run ~ above the Stickney push that published the intaglio rubber stamp design.

Just just like coil manufacturing on the little rotary presses, two plates were published in tandem, so that when placed together on the press they created a cylindrical surface 40 subjects in circumference to add interpane gutter spaces, with a line of ink published in the room where the key adjoined. Joint lines on paper stamps appear at the peak or bottom leaf of printed panes, not between adjacent stamp subjects, so there space no sheet rubber stamp line bag to collect.

Until 1927, rotary press sheet and also booklet stamps were processed ~ above a bar-and-wheel perforator that applied gauge 10 perforations in both horizontal and also vertical direction simultaneously, which make them simple to distinguish from flat-plate paper stamps that had gauge 11 perforations.

Rotary press Sheet Waste

Some amount of rotating sheet-stamp production was not perforated gauge 10, more than likely pieces that were in ~ the leading end of the printed web when it was fed v the gauge 10 perforator. One truth might assist explain why this stamps were consequently salvaged and also finished with gauge 11 perforations: In accepting orders because that Bureau precanceled stamps, the BEP compelled postmasters to order castle in amounts of at the very least 250,000 coil stamps or 500,000 paper stamps. Smaller quantities were precanceled locally.

According to Gary Griffith, the initial 1¢ Franklin precancel orders were for 4 cities: new York, Cleveland, Chicago and Kansas City (Missouri). To manufacture fifty percent a million stamps from combine 400-subject plates required 625 impressions that both plates because that each city. No doubt the printers ran number of extras to enable for spoilage, however suppose the women who were responsible because that perforating and completing the orders uncovered that they were a couple of sheets brief for the Kansas City order.

I think that’s what happened. Being resourceful, they retrieved the unperforated scrap from the perforating station, handle them top top a gauge 11 paper perforator that had actually been set to take right into account the taller vertical measurement of this prints, and also perforated sufficient of castle to to fill the balance of the Kansas City order. Having taken that trouble, lock probably also perforated one or 2 pieces that had actually been printed when the overprint unit on the push was disengaged, and also inserted those into consistent sheet stamp orders therefore they were no wasted.

Sheet waste of the rotary press 1¢ green Washington stamps the the previous issue, Scott 544, and also black 2¢ Warren G. Harding memorial stamps, Scott 613, had been produced, but fewer examples of Scott 596 exist 보다 either the those. In fact, Scott 596 is the rarest 20th-century non-error U.S. Postage stamp. Had it been discovered while the issue was fresh, much more might have actually been found, yet the very first report of their existence showed up in 1936, a dozen years too late.

The Siegel census has recorded five instances with plain cancels and eight precanceled Kansas City, Mo. In the Feb. 9 worry of Linn’s, page 8, Michael Baadke report a newly uncovered precanceled example that was booked to be sold by Harmer-Schau Auction Galleries at its Feb. 13-15 sale organized in conjunction with the Ameristamp Expo present at Riverside, Calif., and I am mindful of one other, for a existing tally that 15.

Summing up the essential Differences

Scott 581 was printed on the rotary press, yet it has actually gauge 10 perforations in both dimensions. That printed architecture is the very same size as Scott 596, for this reason the perforation spacing is the just difference. Both space taller 보다 Scott 552 flat-plate paper stamps.

Scott 632 also was published on the rotating press, but it has actually gauge 11 perforations throughout the top and also bottom, and also gauge 10½ perforations along the left and right edges. That printed style is the very same size as Scott 596, so an accurate measurement that the perforations is necessary, due to the fact that the difference in between the 2 is an extremely small.

Two coil stamps also have the same 1¢ eco-friendly Franklin design. Scott 597 is a horizontal layout coil rubber stamp with directly edges in ~ the top and also bottom, and gauge 10 perforations on the left and also right sides.

Short printed ends of these coil rubber stamp prints to be salvaged together so-called coil waste. Examples with gauge 10 perforations along the left and also right sides and gauge 11 perforations across the top and bottom space Scott 578 coil garbage stamps. Examples with gauge 11 perforations top top all four sides space scarce Scott 594 coil rubbish stamps.

All horizontal format coil and also coil rubbish stamps have broader printed design than any type of of the various other look-alikes.

Scott 604 is a vertical style 1¢ Franklin coil rubber stamp with directly edges in ~ the left and also right, and gauge 10 perforations in ~ the top and bottom. It has the tallest design of all the 1¢ Franklins, taller even than rotary push sheet stamps Scott 581 and Scott 596. No vertical coil rubbish stamps were ever before issued.

With those pointers as a guide, every collector can join the hunt for formerly unrecognized rarities.

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Who will certainly be the next to report one?

The picture of Scott 632a is presented courtesy the the American Philatelic society Reference Collection. Other photos are courtesy that Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries.